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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Social trust and stress symptoms among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from Asia

  All Hong Kong SAR Japan Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand
Mean/% SD Mean/% SD Mean/% SD Mean/% SD Mean/% SD Mean/% SD Mean/% SD
Stress (range:5–35) 17.4 0.2 19.7 0.5 16.4 0.3 15.4 0.4 21.1 0.4 15.7 0.4 16.4 0.5
Trust in government (range:1–7) * 4.8 0.0 4.6 0.1 3.6 0.1 5.7 0.1 5.2 0.1 5.3 0.1 5.1 0.1
Trust in hospital (range:1–7) * 5.7 0.0 5.8 0.1 5.3 0.0 6.0 0.1 5.9 0.1 5.8 0.1 6.1 0.1
Trust in neighbors (range:1–7) * 5.4 0.0 5.3 0.1 5.4 0.0 5.8 0.1 4.9 0.1 5.1 0.1 5.8 0.1
Age*
 55–59 54.7   67.4   48.5   48.8   47.0   59.6   64.7  
 60–64 30.3   24.7   28.2   33.7   40.2   29.7   25.6  
 65+ 15.0   7.9   23.3   17.6   12.7   10.7   9.7  
Gender
 Male 51.4   49.6   49.8   50.0   47.6   58.2   55.9  
 Female 48.6   50.4   50.2   50.0   52.4   41.8   44.1  
Education*
 Secondary or below 27.5   46.6   30.5   36.4   5.6   19.5   18.9  
 Tertiary 56.0   37.3   65.8   34.7   71.3   63.6   63.0  
 Bachelor or above 16.5   16.2   3.7   29.0   23.1   16.9   18.1  
Residence status*
 Rural 22.3   10.7   44.2   17.1   9.5   12.1   27.3  
 Urban 77.7   89.3   55.8   82.9   90.5   87.9   72.7  
Employment status
 Not employed 35.3   37.0   43.0   24.3   39.3   29.7   34.5  
 Employed 64.7   63.0   57.0   75.7   60.7   70.3   65.5  
Income decile
 1 5.4   5.8   3.3   7.9   3.0   9.3   2.9  
 2 6.8   2.2   6.5   13.4   5.6   6.5   5.5  
 3 10.0   13.2   8.7   18.8   8.0   5.6   2.9  
 4 10.0   9.6   9.3   15.1   9.8   10.2   3.8  
 5 8.9   7.9   8.0   10.6   13.9   6.2   6.7  
 6 9.3   7.9   9.2   11.4   10.7   8.2   7.6  
 7 11.8   14.5   11.8   5.9   17.8   10.5   11.3  
 8 9.4   9.3   8.0   3.0   13.3   14.7   10.5  
 9 11.7   14.5   11.5   3.5   9.8   11.9   24.8  
 10 8.5   9.9   6.3   3.0   5.9   10.5   21.8  
Income missing 8.2   5.2   17.3   7.4   2.4   6.5   2.1  
Living with spouse
 No 29.1   20.0   38.8   22.4   27.0   32.1   29.5  
 Yes 70.8   80.0   61.2   77.6   73.0   67.9   70.5  
Living with children
 No 90.5   95.6   96.5   79.5   97.4   87.4   78.0  
 Yes 9.5   4.4   3.5   20.5   2.6   12.6   22.0  
Have chronic disease(s)
 No 76.9   83.6   72.3   78.5   63.9   85.6   80.7  
 Yes 23.1   16.4   27.7   21.5   36.1   14.4   19.3  
N 2308   366   597   404   344   356   241  
  1. * p < 0.05