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Table 1 Demographic characteristics according to clinical outcomes

From: Chronic diseases, chest computed tomography, and laboratory tests as predictors of severe respiratory failure and death in elderly Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study

Variables (n, %) Total
(n = 201)
Mechanical Ventilation
(n = 34)
No Mechanical Ventilation
(n = 167)
p Death
(n = 16)
No Death
(n = 1850)
p
Age (years) (average ± SD) 74.67 ± 9.44 74.0 ± 10.0 72.4 ± 9.0 0.369 80.6 ± 9.1 72.0 ± 8.9 <.001
Aged ≥80 years 464 (21.9) 9 (26.5) 31 (22.9) 0.652 8 (50) 38(20.5) 0.010
Gender
 Male 127 (63.2) 21 (61.8) 106 (63.5) 0.847 9 (56.2) 118 (63.8) 0.593
 Female 74 (36.8) 13 (38.2) 61 (36,5) 7 (43.8) 67 (36.2)
Race
 Caucasian 187 (93.5) 31 (91.2) 156 (93.4) 0.335 16 (100) 171 (92.9) 1.00
 Afro descendant 7 (3.5) 3 (8.8) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1)
 Asian 6 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 6 (3.3)
Marital Status
 No information 15 (7.5) 2 (5.9) 13 (7.8) 0.047 0 (0.0) 15 (8.2) 0.226
 Not married 6 (3.0) 3 (8.8) 3 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 6 (3.3)
 Married 146 (73.0) 22 (64.7) 124 (74.7) 12 (75) 134 (72.8)
 Divorced 9 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 9 (5.4) 0 (0.0) 9 (4.9)
 Widower 24 (12.0) 7 (20.6) 17 (10.2) 4 (25) 20 (10.9)
 Education (in years) (average ± SD) 13.67 (±5.52) 12.6 (±5.2) 14.0 (±6.1) 0.198 13.2 (±5.5) 13.9 (±6.0) 0.670
 Current smoking 11 (5.5) 3 (8.8) 8 (4.8) 0.400 2 (12.4) 9 (4.9) 0.212
Chronic Diseases
 Hypertension 128 (63.7) 26 (76.5) 102 (61.1) 0.118 13 (81.2) 115 (62.2) 0.177
 Chronic diseases (≥ 5) 15 (7.5) 3 (8.8) 12 (7.2) 1.0 1 (6.3) 14 (7.6) 1.0
 Diabetes mellitus 81 (40.3) 14 (41.2) 67 (40.1) 1.00 9 (56.2) 72 (38.9) 0.196
 Heart failure 11 (5.5) 2 (5.9) 9 (5.4) 1.00 2 (12.4) 9 (4.9) 0.212
 Previous myocardial infarction 16 (8.0) 4 (11.7) 12 (7.2) 0.482 3 (18.7) 13 (7.0) 0.120
 Atrial fibrillation 20 (10.0) 8 (23.5) 12 (7.2) 0.012 7 (43.7) 13 (7.0) 0.001
 History of Stroke 14 (7.0) 3 (8.8) 11 (6.6) 0.709 2 (12.4) 12 (6.5) 0.608
 COPD 31 (15.4) 6 (17.6) 25 (15.0) 0.794 4 (25) 27 (14.6|) 0.278
 Asthma 14 (7.0) 2 (5.9) 12 (7.2) 1.00 2 (12.4) 12 (6.5) 0.608
 Osteoporosis 40 (19.9) 9 (26.5) 49 (29.3) 0.344 4 (25) 36 (19.5) 0.743
 Fracture in last 20 years 57 (28.4) 12 (35.3) 45 (26.9) 0.403 4 (25) 53 (28.6) 0.788
 Osteoarthritis 57 (28.4) 8 (23.5) 31 (18.6) 0.541 7 (43.7) 50 (27.0) 0.245
 Parkinson disease 9 (4.5) 1 (2.9) 8 (4.8) 0.712 0 9 (4.9) 0.621
 Alzheimer disease 16 (8.0) 1 (2.9) 15 (9.0) 0.318 2 (12.4) 14 (7.6) 0.621
 Chronic kidney disease (non-HD) 8.0 (16) 7 (20.6) 9 (5.4) 0.012 4 (25.0) 12 (6.5) 0.033
 End-Stage Renal Disease (on HD) 5 (2.5) 3 (8.8) 2 (1.2) 0.035 0.00 5 (2.7) 1.00
 Current cancer 15 (7.5) 2 (5.9) 13 (7.8) 0.753 1 (6.2) 14 (7.6) 1.00
 Previous cancer 29 (14.4) 7 (20.6) 22 (13.2) 0.284 5 (31.2) 24 (13.0) 0.060
Lung involvement > = 50% 50 (25.3) 19 (55.9) 31 (18.9) < 0.001 6 (40) 44 (24) 0.215
  1. Legend: COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HD hemodialysis