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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, health, social, and health service use in 44,518 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging Tracking and Comprehensive Follow-up 1 survey respondents from 2015-2018 by loneliness (lonely, not lonely) and gender (men, women, gender diverse)

From: Examining the association between loneliness and emergency department visits using Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging (CLSA) data: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Variables Total Lonely (n=44,518) Std. difference Men (n=21,722) Women (n=22,740) Gender Diverse (n=39)
Lonely Lonely Lonely
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 44518 (100) 34255 (76.9) 10263 (23.1)   17239 (79.4) 4483 (20.6) 16975 (74.6) 5765 (25.4) 28 (71.8) 11 (28.2)
ED visit
 Yes 10009 (22.5) 7216 (21.1) 2793 (27.2) 0.14 3614 (21) 1180 (26.3) 3595 (21.2) 1606 (27.9) 0-5 6 (54.5)
 No 34385 (77.2) 26956 (78.7) 7429 (72.4) 0.15 13590 (78.8) 3281 (73.2) 13333 (78.5) 4140 (71.8) 23 (82.1) 0-5
Age (years)
 <65 21201 (47.6) 16253 (47.4) 4948 (48.2) 0.02 7922 (46) 2187 (48.8) 8314 (49) 2751 (47.7) 15 (53.6) 7 (63.6)
 65+ 23317 (52.4) 18002 (52.6) 5315 (51.8) 0.02 9317 (54) 2296 (51.2) 8661 (51) 3014 (52.3) 13 (46.4) 0-5
Education
 Less than university 22882 (51.4) 17320 (50.6) 5562 (54.2) 0.07 8038 (46.6) 2242 (50) 9265 (54.6) 3317 (57.5) 9 (32.1) 0-5
 University or higher 18965 (42.6) 15106 (44.1) 3859 (37.6) 0.13 8310 (48.2) 1907 (42.5) 6774 (39.9) 1945 (33.7) 18 (64.3) 0-5
Ethnicity
 All else 1634 (3.7) 1150 (3.4) 484 (4.7) 0.07 660 (3.8) 253 (5.6) 490 (2.9) 231 (4) 0-5 0-5
 White 42884 (96.3) 33105 (96.6) 9779 (95.3) 0.07 16579 (96.2) 4230 (94.4) 16485 (97.1) 5534 (96) 28 (100) 11 (100)
Geographic region
 Rural 4648 (10.4) 3633 (10.6) 1015 (9.9) 0.02 1841 (10.7) 468 (10.4) 1783 (10.5) 546 (9.5) 0-5 0-5
 Urban 39870 (89.6) 30622 (89.4) 9248 (90.1) 0.02 15398 (89.3) 4015 (89.6) 15192 (89.5) 5219 (90.5) 23 (82.1) 11 (100)
Income
 <$20,000 2080 (4.7) 1100 (3.2) 980 (9.5) 0.26 339 (2) 334 (7.5) 757 (4.5) 640 (11.1) 0-5 0-5
 $20,000-<$50,000 9928 (22.3) 6826 (19.9) 3102 (30.2) 0.24 2802 (16.3) 1183 (26.4) 4013 (23.6) 1916 (33.2) 9 (32.1) 0-5
 $50,000+ 29538 (66.4) 24224 (70.7) 5314 (51.8) 0.40 13350 (77.4) 2667 (59.5) 10854 (63.9) 2642 (45.8) 14 (50) 0-5
Marital status
 Single, never married 3855 (8.7) 2390 (7) 1465 (14.3) 0.24 1024 (5.9) 703 (15.7) 1356 (8) 759 (13.2) 0-5 0-5
 Divorced/separated 4884 (11) 3086 (9) 1798 (17.5) 0.25 698 (4) 552 (12.3) 2385 (14.1) 1242
(21.5)
0-5 0-5
 Married/common law 30354 (68.2) 25435 (74.3) 4919 (47.9) 0.56 14444 (83.8) 2463 (54.9) 10966 (64.6) 2450 (42.5) 18 (64.3) 0-5
 Widowed 5403 (12.1) 3326 (9.7) 2077 (20.2) 0.30 1066 (6.2) 764 (17) 2257 (13.3) 1311 (22.7) 0-5 0-5
Living alone
 No 33244 (74.7) 27287 (79.7) 5957 (58) 0.48 14910 (86.5) 2794 (62.3) 12350 (72.8) 3158 (54.8) 20 (71.4) 0-5
 Yes 11274 (25.3) 6968 (20.3) 4306 (42) 0.48 2329 (13.5) 1689 (37.7) 4625 (27.2) 2607 (45.2) 8 (28.6) 9 (81.8)
Number of chronic conditions
 <4 35697 (80.2) 28444 (83) 7253 (70.7) 0.30 15305 (88.8) 3562 (79.5) 13106 (77.2) 3683 (63.9) 24 (85.7) 6 (54.5)
 4+ 8821 (19.8) 5811 (17) 3010 (29.3) 0.30 1934 (11.2) 921 (20.5) 3869 (22.8) 2082 (36.1) 0-5 0-5
Functional impairment
 None 37074 (83.3) 29395 (85.8) 7679 (74.8) 0.28 15835 (91.9) 3743 (83.5) 13528 (79.7) 3927 (68.1) 25 (89.3) 6 (54.5)
 Mild/moderate/severe/total 6102 (13.7) 3839 (11.2) 2263 (22.1) 0.29 1223 (7.1) 688 (15.3) 2609 (15.4) 1570 (27.2) 0-5 0-5
Self-rated mental health
 Poor 389 (0.9) 118 (0.3) 271 (2.6) 0.19 57 (0.3) 129 (2.9) 61 (0.4) 142 (2.5) 0-5 0-5
 Fair/Good/Very Good/Excellent 44066 (99) 34101 (99.6) 9965 (97.1) 0.19 17166 (99.6) 4344 (96.9) 16895 (99.5) 5608 (97.3) 28 (100) 9 (81.8)
Number of depressive symptoms
 Median (Q1-Q3) 19 (17-21) 19 (17-21) 17 (15-20) 0.03 19 (17-21) 19 (17-21) 18 (16-20) 18 (16-20) 19 (16-21) 19 (16-20)
 <10 789 (1.8) 329 (1) 460 (4.5) -0.22 112 (0.6) 156 (3.5) 217 (1.3) 303 (5.3) 0-5 0-5
 10+ 42658 (95.8) 33132 (96.7) 9526 (92.8) 0.18 16726 (97) 4203 (93.8) 16367 (96.4) 5309 (92.1) 27 (96.4) 10 (90.9)
Number of social contacts
 Median (Q1-Q3) 3 (3-4) 4 (3-4) 3 (2-4)   3 (2-4) 3 (2-4) 4(3-4) 4 (3-4) 3 (2-3) 3 (2-3)
 High contact (4-5) 22124 (49.7) 17899 (52.3) 4225 (41.2) 0.22 8530 (49.5) 1674 (37.3) 9358 (55.1) 2547 (44.2) 7 (25) 0-5
 Moderate contact (2-3) 18793 (42.2) 13977 (40.8) 4816 (46.9) 0.12 7331 (42.5) 2180 (48.6) 6620 (39) 2630 (45.6) 20 (71.4) 0-5
 Low contact (0-1) 3600 (8.1) 2378 (6.9) 1222 (11.9) 0.17 1378 (8) 629 (14) 996 (5.9) 588 (10.2) 0-5 0-5
Number of social activities
 Median (Q1-Q3) 3 (2-3) 3 (2-3) 2 (1-3)   3 (2-3) 3 (2-3) 3 (2-3) 3 (2-3) 2 (1-3) 2 (1-3)
 High participation (4-5) 9223 (20.7) 7567 (22.1) 1656 (16.1) 0.15 3495 (20.3) 647 (14.4) 4063 (23.9) 1009 (17.5) 7 (25) 0-5
 Moderate participation (2-3) 26852 (60.3) 21084 (61.6) 5768 (56.2) 0.11 10617 (61.6) 2512 (56) 10446 (61.5) 3251 (56.4) 15 (53.6) 0-5
 Low participation (0-1) 7814 (17.6) 5158 (15.1) 2656 (25.9) 0.27 2935 (17) 1234 (27.5) 2213 (13) 1412 (24.5) 6 (21.4) 9 (81.8)
Anxiety
 No 39462 (88.6) 31060 (90.7) 8402 (81.9) 0.26 15939 (92.5) 3780 (84.3) 15082 (88.8) 4610 (80) 27 (96.4) 9 (81.8)
 Yes 3980 (8.9) 2401 (7) 1579 (15.4) 0.27 893 (5.2) 578 (12.9) 1508 (8.9) 998 (17.3) 0-5 0-5
Family doctor in last 12 months
 No 3939 (8.8) 3086 (9) 853 (8.3) 0.02 1694 (9.8) 440 (9.8) 1389 (8.2) 413 (7.2) 0-5 0-5
 Yes 40471 (90.9) 31093 (90.8) 9378 (91.4) 0.02 15515 (90) 4022 (89.7) 15541 (91.6) 5341 (92.6) 26 (92.9) 11 (100)