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Table 3 Comparison of psychological variables between Swiss (N =146) and Italian (N =425) caregivers

From: Caregivers of people with dementia and mental health during COVID-19: findings from a cross-sectional study

Variable All sample Mean (SD) [min/max] Italians
Mean (SD) [min/max]
Swiss
Mean (SD) [min/max]
T statistics* (df) P-value
ZBI
 Caregiver burden 54.30 (18.33) [6-88] 48.75 (16.90)
[6-88]
70.46 (11.48)
[33-88]
-14.41 (569) <0.001
DASS-21
 Depression 11.79 (6.12)
[0-21]
10.23 (6.17)
[0-21]
16.36 (2.76)
[10–21]
-11.61 (569) <0.001
 Anxiety 10.04 (6.93)
[0-21]
7.82 (6.48)
[0-21]
16.50 (3.05)
[4–21]
-15.59 (569) <0.001
 Stress 12.95 (5.53)
[0-21]
11.60 (5.60)
[0-21]
16.89 (2.71)
[8–21]
-10.97 (569) <0.001
UCLALS3
 Loneliness 6.77 (2.06)
[3–9]
6.29 (0.10)
[3–9]
8.20 (0.79)
[5–9]
-10.62 (569) <0.001
  1. ZBI Zarit Burden Interview (possible range, 6 to 88), DASS-21 Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (possible range, 0-21), UCLALS3 Ucla Loneliness Scale 3 items version (possible range, 3-9)
  2. * Students’ t test for independent samples
  3. P values were calculated using *Chi Squared tests, and *Independent t-test, as appropriate