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Table 2 Associations of social isolation, social participation, and loneliness with level of frailty (Fixed-effects models)

From: Associations of social isolation, social participation, and loneliness with frailty in older adults in Singapore: a panel data analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value
LSNS-6 Family 1.04 (0.97—1.11) 0.255 1.04 (0.97—1.11) 0.250 1.05 (0.97—1.14) 0.231
LSNS-6 Friends 0.99 (0.93—1.06) 0.848 1.00 (0.94—1.07) 0.991 0.99 (0.92—1.07) 0.782
Social participation 0.95 (0.93—0.98)  < 0.001 0.95 (0.93—0.98)  < 0.001 0.96 (0.93—0.99) 0.019
Lonely (Ref: Not lonely) 2.43 (1.17—5.04) 0.017 2.62 (1.24—5.52) 0.011 2.90 (1.44—5.84) 0.003
Age    1.15 (0.97—1.35) 0.105 0.89 (0.74—1.08) 0.233
Marital status (Ref: Married)
 Single/divorced/widowed    1.34 (0.43—4.13) 0.616 1.29 (0.13—12.40) 0.827
Employment status (Ref: Employed)
 Unemployed    0.42 (0.21—0.84) 0.013 0.37 (0.18—0.74) 0.005
 Inactive    0.75 (0.38—1.45) 0.386 0.48 (0.23—1.00) 0.050
Living alone (Ref: Living with others)    0.58 (0.27—1.28) 0.177 0.42 (0.17—1.07) 0.070
Self-reported money insufficiency (Ref: Sufficient)    1.35 (0.83—2.21) 0.224 1.54 (0.87—2.75) 0.142
Currently smoking (Ref: Not smoking)      0.79 (0.14 – 4.33) 0.782
Alcohol misuse (Ref: No misuse)      0.94 (0.41 – 2.16) 0.885
Number of chronic conditions      3.48 (1.92 – 6.31)  < 0.001
Number of medications (Ref: 0–2)
3 or more      1.99 (1.01 – 3.89) 0.045
Nutritional status (Ref: Normal)
 Undernutrition      1.80 (0.93—3.48) 0.083
Functional independence      0.76 (0.67 – 0.86)  < 0.001
  1. Number of observations: 782; number of individuals: 282. Model 1 accounted for all time-invariant factors. Model2 additionally adjusted for time-variant demographic factors including age, marital status, employment status and living arrangement. Model 3 additionally adjusted for lifestyle and health-related factors including current smoking status, alcohol misuse, number of chronic conditions, number of long-term medications, current nutritional status, and functional independence. OR: odds ratio; 95%CI: 95% confidence interval