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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at baseline (N = 606)

From: Associations of social isolation, social participation, and loneliness with frailty in older adults in Singapore: a panel data analysis

Characteristics n / mean % /SD
Time-invariant characteristics
Female 349 57.6
Ethnicity
 Chinese 511 84.3
 Malay 31 5.1
 Indian 56 9.2
 Others 8 1.3
Highest education attended
 No formal education 207 34.2
 Primary school 108 17.8
 Secondary school 217 35.8
 Post-secondary school & above 74 12.2
Time-variant characteristics
Age (Mean, SD) 70.1 7.9
marital status
 Married 355 58.6
 Single/divorced/widowed 251 41.4
Employment status
 Employed 185 30.5
 Unemployed 142 23.4
 Inactive 279 46.0
Living alone 119 19.6
Self-reported money insufficiency 103 17.0
Currently smoking 54 8.9
Alcohol misuse 69 11.4
Number of chronic conditions (Mean, SD) 2.7 2.0
Number of medications
 0 171 28.2
 1 or 2 208 34.3
 3 or more 227 37.5
Nutritional status: undernutrition 80 13.2
Functional independence- MBI score (Mean, SD) 97.8 9.3
LSNS-6 Family (range 0–15) (Mean, SD) 8.4 3.5
 Isolated from relatives (LSNS-6 Family < 6) 107 17.7
LSNS-6 Friends (range 0–15) (Mean, SD) 6.0 4.0
 Isolated from friends (LSNS-6 Friends < 6) 287 47.4
Social participation (range 0–100) (Mean, SD) 39.4 9.4
Loneliness (range3-9) (Mean, SD) 3.4 1.0
 Not lonely 636 93.0
 Lonely (loneliness score ≥ 6) 44 7.3
  1. SD standard deviation, MBI Modified Barthel Index