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Table 3 Relationship between race/ethnicity and cognitive function

From: Explanatory role of sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and social factors on cognitive decline in older adults with diabetes

Dementia vs. Normal (ref)
  Unadjusted Adjusted Model 1 Adjusted Model 2 Adjusted Model 3 Fully Adjusted
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Race/Ethnicity   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
NH White Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
NH Black 2.99
(2.35–3.81)
  3.36
(2.51–4.50)
  3.33
(2.59–4.28)
  3.35
(2.43–4.63)
  3.75
(2.52–5.56)
 
Hispanic 3.55
(2.77–4.56)
  2.23
(1.61–3.11)
  4.24
(3.25–5.53)
  3.52
(2.52–4.93)
  3.05
(1.97–4.72)
 
Other 1.09
(0.56–2.11)
  2.33
(1.13–4.80)
  1.12
(0.57–2.20)
  1.73
(0.79–3.78)
  3.82
(1.47–9.95)
 
Mild Cognitive Impairment vs. Normal (ref)
  Unadjusted Adjusted Model 1 Adjusted Model 2 Adjusted Model 3 Fully Adjusted
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Race/Ethnicity   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
NH White Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
NH Black 2.45
(2.14–2.82)
  2.64
(2.25–3.09)
  2.65
(2.30–3.06)
  2.63
(2.22–3.11)
  2.87
(2.37–3.48)
 
Hispanic 2.49
(2.13–2.90)
  1.84
(1.53–2.22)
  2.75
(2.34–3.23)
  2.16
(1.78–2.62)
  1.88
(1.49–2.37)
 
Other 1.23
(0.88–1.73)
  1.83
(1.28–2.61)
  1.30
(0.91–1.86)
  1.49
(1.00–2.23)
  2.20
(1.42–3.39)
 
Dementia vs. Mild Cognitive Impairment (ref)
  Unadjusted Adjusted Model 1 Adjusted Model 2 Adjusted Model 3 Fully Adjusted
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Race/Ethnicity   0.04   0.28   0.01   0.01   0.04
NH White Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
NH Black 1.22
(0.95–1.56)
  1.29
(0.98–1.69)
  1.32
(1.02–1.70)
  1.38
(1.00–1.90)
  1.44
(1.00–2.06)
 
Hispanic 1.43
(1.11–1.84)
  1.27
(0.94–1.70)
  1.59
(1.22–2.07)
  1.74
(1.26–2.39)
  1.72
(1.17–2.52)
 
Other 0.88
(0.44–1.77)
  1.17
(0.56–2.44)
  1.00
(0.50–2.03)
  1.26
(0.55–2.89)
  1.72
(0.68–4.31)
 
  1. *Adjusted Model 1: Sociodemographics (Gender, Age, Education, Household Income/Assets)
  2. **Adjusted Model 2: Clinical/Behavioral (# of Comorbidities, BMI, Smoking Status)
  3. ***Adjusted Model 3: Social (Perceived Support (+), Perceived Support (−), Loneliness, Social Participation, Perceived Constraints on Personal Control, Perceived Mastery on Personal Control)
  4. ****Fully Adjusted Model: Demographics + Clinical/Behavioral + Social