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Table 2 Sample characteristics by race/ethnicity

From: Explanatory role of sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and social factors on cognitive decline in older adults with diabetes

  Total
(n = 5571)
NH White
(n = 3060)
NH Black
(n = 1340)
Hispanic
(n = 962)
Other
(n = 209)
P-value
Demographics
Cognitive Status       <.0001
 Normal 71.9% 80.2% 61.3% 59.6% 76.6%  
 Mild 22.5% 16.3% 31.0% 31.2% 19.1%  
 Dementia 5.6% 3.5% 7.7% 9.2% 4.3%  
Gender       <.0001
 Male 44.7% 48.7% 37.6% 41.3% 46.4%  
 Female 55.3% 51.3% 62.4% 58.7% 53.6%  
Age in years at first assessment       <.0001
 Mean (SD) 67.2 (9.88) 69.5 (9.87) 64.8 (9.11) 64.4 (9.34) 62.5 (8.42)  
Education level       <.0001
 Less than high school 26.3% 15.8% 28.7% 58.3% 17.2%  
 GED/High school graduate 34.5% 39.7% 33.2% 20.9% 28.2%  
 Some college 22.9% 24.6% 25.0% 14.8% 22.5%  
 College and above 16.3% 19.9% 13.1% 6.0% 32.1%  
Household income and assets [median (IQR)/quartile]
 1st Quartile $18,312 (8906–36,512) $23,528 (11,052 - 40,016) $15,142 (8149–34,000) $15,900 (8217–33,677) $19,108 (8020–42,513) 0.03
 2nd Quartile $122,896 (88,618 - 160,250) $128,532 (97,224 - 166,212) $116,285 (83,216 - 154,240) $112,122 (79,200 - 156,000) $98,801 (80,008 - 134,370) <.0001
 3rd Quartile $313,010 (250,537 - 410,561) $322,872 (252,056 - 420,460) $295,608 (243,610 - 379,432) $302,900 (254,882 - 402,610) $283,824 (242,354 - 411,179) 0.09
 4th Quartile $888,267 (680,020 - 1,388,797) $931,802 (702,836 - 1,423,416) $756,421 (624,170 - 1,170,000) $702,000 (622,060 - 985,000) $843,029 (683,492 - 1,337,488) 0.03
Clinical/Behavioral
Comorbidity group       <.0001
 Low comorbidity (0–1) 25.9% 21.4% 24.9% 38.6% 40.7%  
 Moderate comorbidity (2–3) 53.1% 54.7% 54.7% 47.9% 42.6%  
 High comorbidity (4+) 21.0% 23.9% 20.4% 13.5% 16.7%  
BMI category       0.001
 Underweight 0.6% 0.5% 0.6% 0.9% 0.5%  
 Normal weight 14.5% 15.0% 13.4% 13.2% 19.6%  
 Overweight 32.7% 34.1% 28.7% 33.1% 35.8%  
 Obese 52.2% 50.4% 57.3% 52.8% 44.1%  
Smoking status       <.0001
 Non-smoker 41.5% 40.7% 38.4% 47.1% 46.4%  
 Former smoker 45.1% 47.5% 43.8% 41.1% 37.8%  
 Current smoker 13.4% 11.8% 17.8% 11.8% 15.8%  
Social
Perceived social support – positive       0.42
 Mean (SD) 3.09 (0.57) 3.08 (0.55) 3.11 (0.59) 3.11 (0.60) 3.07 (0.56)  
Perceived social support – negative       <.0001
 Mean (SD) 1.71 (0.51) 1.65 (0.47) 1.81 (0.56) 1.76 (0.55) 1.90 (0.57)  
Loneliness       <.0001
 Mean (SD) 1.55 (0.57) 1.53 (0.57) 1.63 (0.58) 1.52 (0.56) 1.60 (0.60)  
Social participation       <.0001
 Mean (SD) 7.38 (3.29) 7.61 (3.21) 7.27 (3.58) 6.50 (3.07) 7.92 (2.96)  
Perceived constraints on personal control       <.0001
 Mean (SD) 2.38 (1.25) 2.34 (1.23) 2.34 (1.20) 2.59 (1.35) 2.54 (1.36)  
Perceived mastery on personal control       0.02
 Mean (SD) 4.65 (1.16) 4.65 (1.11) 4.56 (1.25) 4.71 (1.24) 4.82 (1.14)  
  1. *NH Non-Hispanic
  2. **SD Standard Deviation