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Table 1 Sample characteristics by cognitive status

From: Explanatory role of sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and social factors on cognitive decline in older adults with diabetes

  Total (n = 5571) Normal (n = 4007) Mild (n = 1255) Dementia (n = 309) P-value
Demographics
Race/Ethnicity      <.0001
 Non-Hispanic White (NHW) 54.9% 61.2% 39.8% 34.6%  
 Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) 24.1% 20.5% 33.1% 33.7%  
 Hispanic 17.3% 14.3% 23.9% 28.8%  
 Other 3.8% 4.0% 3.2% 2.9%  
Gender      0.0002
 Male 44.7% 46.4% 41.0% 37.9%  
 Female 55.3% 53.6% 59.0% 62.1%  
Age at first assessment      <.0001
 Mean (SD) 67.2 (9.88) 66.0 (9.26) 69.6 (10.57) 73.5 (10.71)  
Education level      <.0001
 Less than high school 26.3% 17.4% 45.3% 65.1%  
 GED/High school graduate 34.5% 35.7% 33.0% 24.6%  
 Some college 22.9% 26.6% 15.0% 7.1%  
 College and above 16.3% 20.3% 6.8% 3.2%  
Household income and assets [median (IQR)/quartile]
 1st Quartile $18,312
(8906–36,512)
$20,412
(9292–39,096)
$16,729
(8764–34,480)
$12,000
(8088–25,008)
0.58
 2nd Quartile $122,896
(88,618 - 160,250)
$125,300
(90,224 - 162,000)
$116,596
(83,432 - 153,200)
$128,148
(79,780 - 160,799)
0.03
 3rd Quartile $313,010
(250,537 - 410,561)
$314,028
(250,412 - 410,000)
$308,697
(249,000 - 419,500)
$317,052
(272,902 - 412,359)
0.68
 4th Quartile $888,267 (680,020 -
1,388,797)
$899,800 (678,888 -
1,411,640)
$847,865 (700,100 -
1,113,872)
$833,672 (637,253 -
1,846,832)
0.48
Clinical/Behavioral
Comorbidity group      <.0001
 Low comorbidity (0–1) 25.9% 28.1% 21.3% 16.8%  
 Moderate comorbidity (2–3) 53.1% 53.1% 53.5% 51.8%  
 High comorbidity (4+) 21.0% 18.9% 25.3% 31.4%  
BMI category      <.0001
 Underweight 0.6% 0.3% 1.1% 2.0%  
 Normal weight 14.5% 12.8% 17.9% 22.9%  
 Overweight 32.7% 32.0% 34.2% 36.6%  
 Obese 52.2% 54.9% 46.8% 38.5%  
Smoking status      0.07
 Non-smoker 41.5% 42.3% 38.3% 44.3%  
 Former smoker 45.1% 44.9% 46.7% 42.4%  
 Current smoker 13.4% 12.8% 15.0% 13.3%  
 Social Factors
Perceived social support –positive      0.99
 Mean (SD) 3.09 (0.57) 3.09 (0.55) 3.09 (0.61) 3.09 (0.64)  
Perceived social support –negative      0.48
 Mean (SD) 1.71 (0.51) 1.70 (0.49) 1.72 (0.57) 1.69 (0.55)  
Loneliness      <.0001
 Mean (SD) 1.55 (0.57) 1.53 (0.56) 1.62 (0.58) 1.64 (0.59)  
Social participation      <.0001
 Mean (SD) 7.38 (3.29) 7.91 (3.12) 6.15 (3.21) 4.61 (3.36)  
Perceived constraints on personal control      <.0001
 Mean (SD) 2.38 (1.25) 2.25 (1.19) 2.71 (1.34) 2.98 (1.34)  
Perceived mastery on personal control      <.0001
 Mean (SD) 4.65 (1.16) 4.72 (1.11) 4.49 (1.25) 4.14 (1.40)  
  1. SD standard deviation