Skip to main content

Table 2 Self-rated change in the six dimensions of Positive Health compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic

From: Positive health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey among community-dwelling older individuals in the Netherlands

  Decreased % (n) Unchanged % (n) Improved % (n) p-value
Sex Bodily functions Men 10.4 (40) 69.9 (269) 19.7 (76) 0.004
Women 18.7 (80) 63.2 (270) 18.0 (77)  
Mental well-being Men 9.1 (35) 56.6 (218) 34.3 (132) 0.010
Women 14.3 (61) 47.1 (201) 38.6 (165)  
Meaningfulness Men 14.9 (57) 74.9 (287) 10.2 (39)  < 0.001
Women 26.5 (112) 60.4 (255) 13.0 (55)  
Quality of life Men 20.1 (77) 76.8 (295) 3.1 (12) 0.001
Women 26.1 (111) 66.0 (281) 8.0 (34)  
Social participation Men 69.0 (263) 28.1 (107) 2.9 (11) 0.006
Women 76.3 (325) 19.0 (81) 4.7 (20)  
Daily functioning Men 37.6 (144) 61.1 (234) 1.3 (5) 0.088
Women 39.7 (169) 56.8 (242) 3.5 (15)  
Age Bodily functions 65–75 years 15.7 (81) 67.9 (351) 16.4 (85) 0.061
76 years and over 13.9 (44) 63.1 (200) 23.0 (73)  
Mental well-being 65–75 years 12.0 (62) 50.3 (260) 37.7 (195) 0.644
76 years and over 11.0 (35) 53.6 (170) 35.3 (112)  
Meaningfulness 65–75 years 22.8 (117) 64.9 (333) 12.3 (63) 0.192
76 years and over 18.8 (59) 71.0 (223) 10.2 (32)  
Quality of life 65–75 years 23.1 (119) 70.5 (363) 6.4 (33) 0.602
76 years and over 23.7 (75) 71.6 (227) 4.7 (15)  
Social participation 65–75 years 74.5 (383) 21.4 (110) 4.1 (21) 0.184
76 years and over 69.2 (218) 27.0 (85) 3.8 (12)  
Daily functioning 65–75 years 38.7 (199) 58.4 (300) 2.9 (15) 0.647
76 years and over 38.5 (122) 59.6 (189) 1.9 (6)  
Living situation Bodily functions Alone 17.9 (52) 61.0 (177) 21.0 (61) 0.050
With others 13.0 (70) 69.1 (372) 17.8 (96)  
Mental well-being Alone 13.8 (40) 52.4 (152) 33.8 (98) 0.228
With others 10.6 (57) 50.7 (273) 38.7 (208)  
Meaningfulness Alone 27.6 (79) 58.7 (168) 13.6 (39) 0.001
With others 17.9 (96) 71.8 (384) 10.3 (55)  
Quality of life Alone 26.6 (77) 66.6 (193) 6.9 (20) 0.151
With others 21.8 (117) 72.9 (391) 5.2 (28)  
Social participation Alone 69.2 (200) 25.6 (74) 5.2 (15) 0.227
With others 74.2 (396) 22.5 (120) 3.4 (18)  
Daily functioning Alone 40.0 (116) 56.2 (163) 3.8 (11) 0.178
With others 37.9 (203) 60.2 (322) 1.9 (10)  
Self-rated general health Bodily functions Poor 21.6 (29) 43.3 (58) 35.1 (47)  < 0.001
Good 13.7 (96) 70.4 (493) 15.9 (111)  
Mental well-being Poor 17.9 (24) 38.8 (52) 43.3 (58) 0.002
Good 10.4 (73) 54.0 (378) 35.6 (249)  
Meaningfulness Poor 28.8 (38) 57.6 (76) 13.6 (18) 0.031
Good 19.9 (138) 69.1 (480) 11.1 (77)  
Quality of life Poor 39.6 (53) 56.7 (76) 3.7 (5)  < 0.001
Good 20.2 (141) 73.6 (514) 6.2 (43)  
Social participation Poor 75.2 (100) 20.3 (27) 4.5 (6) 0.616
Good 72.0 (501) 24.1 (168) 3.9 (27)  
Daily functioning Poor 54.9 (73) 39.1 (52) 6.0 (8)  < 0.001
Good 35.5 (248) 62.6 (437) 1.9 (13)