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Table 1 Variables and cut-points for the Frailty Index

From: The relationship between social deprivation and a frailty index of cumulative deficits in French middle-aged caregivers

Variables Coding
Cognition and autonomy
 Cognitive assessment (MoCA score) Cut-points according to age and socio-cultural level (GRECOGVASC): Preservation = 0, Fragility = 1 (MoCA score < − 1 SD) [14, 15]
 Processing speed assessment (Coding score) Cut-points according to age (WAIS-IV): Preservation = 0, Fragility = 1 (Coding score < − 1 SD) [16, 17]
 Autonomy assessment (4-item IADL score) <  1 = 0, ≥ 1 = 1 [18]
 Able to manage his/her daily life if alone for 15 days Yes = 0, No = 1
Dietetics
 Overall nutritional intakes Sufficient = 0, Insufficient = 1
 Calcium intakes Sufficient = 0, Insufficient = 1
 Protein intakes Sufficient = 0, Insufficient = 1
Physical activity and risk of falling
 Marshall physical activity assessment score ≥ 4 = 0, <  4 = 1 [19]
 One or more falls in the past year No = 0, Yes = 1
 Gait speed test (4-m) ≥ 1 m/s = 0, <  1 m/s = 1 [20]
 Handgrip strength test Men: ≥ 30 kg = 0, <  30 kg = 1; Women: ≥ 20 kg = 0, <  20 kg = 1 [21]
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease No = 0, Yes = 1 (History of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina or arteritis of the lower limbs)
 Other heart disease No = 0, Yes = 1 (History of arrhythmia or valvular heart disease)
 High blood pressure No = 0, Yes = 1 (SBP > 140 mmHg or DBP > 90 mmHg or history of HBP)
 Diabetes No = 0, Yes = 1 (HbA1c > 6.5% or history of diabetes)
 Dyslipidaemia No = 0, Yes = 1 (Total cholesterol ≥2 g/l or triglycerides ≥1.5 g/l or history of dyslipidaemia)
 Cancer No = 0, Yes = 1
 Airway obstruction No = 0, Yes = 1 (FEV1/FVC < 0.7 or history of COPD) [22]
 Thyroid disease No = 0, Yes = 1 (Abnormal hs-TSH according to laboratory standards or history of thyroid disease)
 Vision disease No = 0, Yes = 1 (History of cataract, glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration)
 Anxiety HAD < 8 = 0, HAD ≥8 and < 11 = 0.5, HAD ≥11 = 1 [23]
 Depression HAD < 8 = 0, HAD ≥8 and < 11 = 0.5, HAD ≥11 = 1 [23]
Regular treatment No = 0, Yes = 1
Functional signs
 Chronic sleep disorders No = 0, Yes = 1 (Any disorder during at least 3 nights per week, for at least 3 months, despite habits and conditions suitable for sleep)
 Difficulty retaining urine No = 0, Yes = 1
Lab values and paraclinical examinations
 Anaemia No = 0, Yes = 1 (Hb < 13.5 g/100 ml in men, Hb < 12.5 g/100 ml in women)
 Elevated hs-CRP No = 0, Yes = 1 (>  3 mg/l) [24]
 Elevated liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT or GGT) No = 0, Yes = 1 (According to laboratory standards)
 Body mass index BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and < 25 kg/m2 = 0, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and < 30 kg/m2 = 0.5, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 or ≥ 30 kg/m2 = 1 [25]
 Pure tone audiometry PTA4 ≤ 25 dB in each ear = 0, PTA4 > 25 dB in at least one ear = 1 [26]
 Hip bone mineral density Normal (T-score > − 1) = 0, Osteopenia (T-score = [− 1, − 2.5[) = 0.5, Osteoporosis (T-score ≤ − 2.5) = 1 [27]
 Lumbar spine bone mineral density Normal (T-score > − 1) = 0, Osteopenia (T-score = [− 1, − 2.5[) = 0.5, Osteoporosis (T-score ≤ − 2.5) = 1 [27]
 Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Normal = 0, Sarcopenia = 1 (aLM/Ht2 ≤ 7.23 kg/m2 in men, ≤ 5.67 kg/m2 in women) (20)
 Electrocardiogram No or minor anomalies = 0, Anomalies = 1
  1. MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, GRECOGVASC Groupe de Réflexion pour l’Évaluation COGnitive Vasculaire, SD Standard deviation, WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th edition, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, HBP High Blood Pressure, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, HbA1c Haemoglobin a1c Protein, FEV1 Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s, FVC Forced Vital Capacity, hs-TSH high-sensitivity Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, HAD Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hb Haemoglobin, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, ASAT Aspartame Aminotransferase, ALAT Alanine Aminotransferase, GGT Gamma-GT, BMI Body Mass Index, PTA4 Pure-Tone Average of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 kHz, dB Decibel, aLM/Ht2 appendicular fat lean mass/ ht2