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Table 3 Results of regression analyses: Effect of background characteristics and lifestyle factors (smoking, use of alcohol, physical activity, nutrition) on frailty total and domains1

From: Associations between lifestyle factors and multidimensional frailty: a cross-sectional study among community-dwelling older people

  Frailty total Frailty physical Frailty psychological Frailty social
  B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p
Background characteristics             
Age_c 0.533 0.015 <0.001 0.316 0.010 <0.001 0.079 0.006 <0.001 0.135 0.004 <0.001
Age2_c 0.082 0.008 <0.001 0.048 0.005 <0.001 0.014 0.003 <0.001 0.019 0.002 <0.001
Gender (women) 0.703 0.043 <0.001 0.237 0.027 <0.001 0.268 0.017 <0.001 0.203 0.012 <0.001
Not married     0.002 0.073 0.976 –0.004 0.047 0.937    
Divorced*     0.053 0.058 0.365 0.038 0.037 0.301    
Widowed*     0.298 0.095 <0.001 0.141 0.031 <0.001    
Education –0.080 0.019 <0.001 –0.054 0.012 <0.001 –0.031 0.007 <0.001 0.005 0.005 0.400
Income 0.750 0.023 <0.001 0.426 0.015 <0.001 0.215 0.009 <0.001 0.127 0.007 <0.001
ΔR2 0.230 F(5, 28295) = 1699.94, p<0.001 0.205 F(8, 31477) = 1016.119, p <0.001 0.088 F(8, 34620) = 416.15, p <0.001 0.128 F(5, 32725) = 958.84, p <0.001
Lifestyle factors
Smoking
Smoking past 0.197 0.039 <0.001 0.128 0.024 <0.001 0.040 0.015 0.010 0.024 0.011 0.037
Smoking 0.029 0.004 <0.001 0.006 0.002 0.013 0.008 0.001 <0.001 0.014 0.001 <0.001
ΔR2 0.007 F(2, 26915) = 118.94, p <0.001 0.003 F(2, 29728) = 60.86, p <0.001 0.002 F(2, 32528) = 42.99, p <0.001 0.008 F(2, 30850) = 149.71, p <0.001
  0.004 F(2,20564) = 54.30, p <0.001 0.001 F(2,22091) = 19.92, p <0.001 0.002 F(2, 23299) = 22.28, p <0.001 0.007 F(2, 22817) = 98.83, p <0.001
Use of alcohol
Drinking past –0.195 0.059 <0.001 –0.222 0.037 <0.001 0.010 0.023 0.653 0.008 0.017 0.646
Drinking –0.070 0.007 <0.001 –0.044 0.004 <0.001 –0.013 0.003 <0.001 –0.017 0.002 <0.001
ΔR2 0.008 F(2, 27170) = 140.56, p <0.001 0.010 F(2,29893) = 192.78, p <0.001 0.001 F(2, 32506) = 21.91, p <0.001 0.002 F(2, 30996) = 39.40, p <0.001
  0.005 F(2, 20564) = 78.41, p <0.001 0.006 F(2,22091) = 104.05, p <0.001 0.001 F(2, 23299) = 13.08, p <0.001 0.003 F(2, 22817) = 40.36, p <0.001
Physical activity
Walk work –0.044 0.018 0.016 –0.052 0.011 <0.001 –0.002 0.007 0.746 0.013 0.005 0.011
Cycle work –0.071 0.019 <0.001 –0.061 0.012 <0.001 –0.020 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.006 0.152
Homework Light –0.067 0.010 <0.001 –0.052 0.006 <0.001 –0.025 0.004 <0.001 0.010 0.003 <0.001
Homework Heavy –0.111 0.012 <0.001 –0.110 0.008 <0.001 –0.005 0.005 0.295 0.004 0.004 0.264
Active work Light 0.003 0.011 0.807 0.003 0.007 0.665 0.002 0.004 0.719 0.000 0.003 0.941
Active work Heavy –0.019 0.018 0.285 –0.014 0.011 0.209 –0.007 0.007 0.289 –0.001 0.005 0.783
Walking –0.116 0.010 <0.001 –0.095 0.006 <0.001 –0.010 0.004 0.012 –0.005 0.003 0.071
Cycling –0.182 0.010 <0.001 –0.119 0.006 <0.001 –0.036 0.004 <0.001 –0.027 0.003 <0.001
Gardening –0.137 0.011 <0.001 –0.100 0.006 <0.001 –0.026 0.004 <0.001 –0.009 0.003 0.003
Do-it-yourself –0.065 0.012 <0.001 –0.023 0.007 <0.001 –0.023 0.005 <0.001 –0.017 0.003 <0.001
Sports –0.065 0.009 <0.001 –0.037 0.007 <0.001 –0.018 0.004 <0.001 –0.009 0.003 0.005
ΔR2 0.065 F(11,22008) = 189.76, p <0.001 0.083 F(11,23743) = 257.53, p <0.001 0.018 F(11, 25173) = 46.92, p <0.001 0.010 F(11,24595) = 25.70, p <0.001
  0.056 F(11,20564) = 153.79, p <0.001 0.074 F(11,22091) = 217.22, p <0.001 0.016 F(11, 23299) = 38.48, p <0.001 0.007 F(11,22817) = 18.14, p <0.001
R2 total 0.321   <0.001 0.312   <0.001 0.116   <0.001 0.150   <0.001
Nutrition
Fruits –0.025 0.022 0.251 –0.000 0.013 0.998 –0.013 0.009 0.127 –0.013 0.006 0.036
Vegetables –0.050 0.021 0.017 –0.022 0.013 0.092 –0.020 0.008 0.014 –0.008 0.006 0.182
Hot meal –0.187 0.037 <0.001 –0.050 0.023 0.029 –0.047 0.015 0.001 –0.088 0.011 <0.001
Breakfast –0.041 0.029 0.155 –0.022 0.018 0.219 –0.014 0.011 0.220 –0.005 0.009 0.594
ΔR2 0.018 F(4, 5161) = 32.55, p <0.001 0.008 F(4, 5594) = 14.10, p <0.001 0.010 F(4, 6009) = 17.54, p <0.001 0.026 F(4, 5805) = 46.17, p <0.001
  0.008 F(4, 3774) = 11.73, p <0.001 0.002 F(4, 4003) = 2.94, p = 0.019 0.006 F(4, 4204) = 7.25, p <0.001 0.018 F(4, 4144) = 22.19, p <0.001
R2 total 0.346   <0.001 0.333   <0.001 0.150   <0.001 0.169   <0.001
  1. 1 Estimates of unstandardized regression coefficients (B) with standard error (SE) of background, drinking, smoking, and physical activity variables are based on the final regression model including all these predictors simultaneously, applied to both the West-Brabant (WB) and Hart voor Brabant, Brabant Zuidoost, Zeeland (HZ) together. ΔR2 is the increase in explained variance of adding all predictors of this block (drinking, smoking, physical activity) after controlling for the effect of the background variables (first line) or after controlling for all other predictors in the final model (last line).
  2. Estimates of regression coefficients of nutrition are based on the model, including all predictors simultaneously for the WB sample. ΔR2 is here the increase in explained variance of adding all predictors of nutrition after controlling for the effect of the background variables (first line) or after controlling for all other predictors in the model (last line).
  3. We did not include marital status in the regression analysis with frailty total and frailty social as dependent variables because living alone is a component of these variables