Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics (N = 45,336)

From: Associations between lifestyle factors and multidimensional frailty: a cross-sectional study among community-dwelling older people

  Sample 1: West-Brabant (WB) Sample 2: Hart voor Brabant, Brabant Zuidoost, Zeeland (HZ)
(N=10,421) Missings (N=34,915) Missings
Background characteristics     
Age, mean ±SD, range 73.0 ± 6.5, 65–100 124 73.5 ± 6.6, 65–103 323
Gender, % of women 5454 (52.3) - 18,216 (52.2) -
Marital status   371   1000
Married/cohabiting 6961 (69.3)   23,200 (68.4)  
Not married 284 (2.8)   1205 (3.6)  
Divorced 435 (4.3)   1794 (5.2)  
Widowed 2370 (23.6)   7716 (22.8)  
Education   617   1997
Low 2104 (21.5   5835 (17.7)  
Middle-low 4775 (48.7)   15,228 (46.3)  
Middle-high 1552 (15.8)   5885 (17.9)  
High 1373 (14.0)   5970 (18.1)  
Household income   494   1678
No, don’t bother 4455 (42.8)   16,323 (49.1)  
No, don't bother, but I have to keep an eye on my expenses 4190 (42.2)   13,011 (39.1)  
Yes, some difficulty 1048 (10.6)   3188 (9.6)  
Yes, great difficulty 234 (2.4)   715 (2.2)  
Frailty, mean ±SD, range     
Total 2.67 (2.86) 2791 2.61 (2.81), 0–14 9096
Physical 1.37 (1.84) 1916 1.34 (1.82), 0–8 6071
Psychological 0.83 (1.07) 974 0.80 (1.06), 0–4 3116
Social 0.59 (0.81) 1576 0.58 (0.79), 0–3 5042
Lifestyle factors     
Smoking     
Smoking past, % of Yes 6445 (65.7) 608 21,694 (66.4) 2241
Smoking (cigarettes a day), mean ±SD, range 1.41   1.31  
Alcohol use     
Drinking past, % of Yes 8469 (85.4) 503 29,138 (87.1) 1450
Drinking (days a week), mean ±SD, range 2.85 (2.78), 0–7 961 3.03 (2.81), 0–7 3000
Nutrition (days a week), mean ±SD, range     
Fruits 4.24 (1.89), 0–7 1883 -  
Vegetables 2.64 (1.92), 0–7 1648 -  
Hot meal 5.66 (1.21), 0–7 852 -  
Breakfast 6.58 (1.44), 0–7 808 -  
Physical activity (log of number of minutes a week), mean ±SD, range     
Walk work 0.62 (1.43), 0–7.45 2545 0.40 (1.18), 0–7.83 7514
Cycle work 0.54 (1.32), 0–7.65 2545 0.40 (1.15), 0–7.65 7514
Housework Light 3.45 (2.05), 0–8.20 1031 3.43 (1.09), 0–8.48 3839
Housework Heavy 1.25 (1.62), 0–7.83 1031 1.19 (1.60), 0–8.48 3839
Active work Light 1.30 (2.09), 0–6.74 3145 1.03 (1.95), 0–6.75 8847
Active work Heavy 0.57 (1.37), 0–6.74 3145 0.41 (1.20), 0–6.74 8847
Walking 2.02 (1.81), 0–8.19 598 2.07 (1.79) 0–8.60 1820
Cycling 1.89 (1.85), 0–7.50 598 1.92 (1.86) 0–7.75 1820
Gardening 1.62 (1.82), 0–7.65 598 1.63 (1.79), 0–7.65 1820
Do–it–yourself 1.11 (1.73), 0–7.63 598 1.13 (1.73), 0–8.32 1820
Sports 1.11 (1.70), 0–7.41 598 1.23 (1.73), 0–8.77 1820
  1. SD = Standard deviation