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Table 3 Participant baseline clinical characteristics

From: The dynamics of frailty development and progression in older adults in primary care in England (2006–2017): a retrospective cohort profile

  Age Group Total (%)
50–64 65–74 75–84 ≥85
eFI score
 median 0.028 0.083 0.139 0.167 0.056
 Upper: lower quartile [0: 0.083] [0.028: 0.139] [0.083: 0.194] [0.111: 0.250] [0.028: 0.111]
Frailty category
 Fit 1,273,304 (90.1%) 272,694 (70.7%) 120,357 (46.5%) 37,243 (31.2%) 1,703,598 (78.2%)
 Mild 127,029 (9.0%) 94,558 (24.5%) 99,154 (38.3%) 49,192 (41.2%) 369,933 (17.0%)
 Moderate 12,055 (0.9%) 16,167 (4.2%) 32,732 (12.6%) 25,360 (21.2%) 86,214 (3.4%)
 Severe 1188 (0.1%) 2055 (0.5%) 6882 (2.7%) 7686 (6.4%) 17,811 (0.8%)
Long-term conditions
 Atrial fibrillation 11,359 (0.8%) 15,381 (4.0%) 23,978 (9.3%) 17,553 (14.7%) 68,271 (3.1%)
 Coronary Artery Disease 16,176 (1.1%) 16,017 (4.2%) 12,015 (4.6%) 2419 (2.0%) 46,627 (2.1%)
 Dementia 7705 (0.6%) 7812 (2.0%) 18,748 (7.2%) 19,328 (16.2%) 53,593 (2.5%)
 Depression 271,343 (19.2%) 55,438 (14.4%) 37,418 (14.4%) 18,220 (15.3%) 382,419 (17.6%)
 Haemorrhagic Stroke 3938 (0.3%) 1959 (0.5%) 1733 (0.7%) 867 (0.7%) 8497 (0.4%)
 Heart Failure 6219 (0.4%) 8736 (2.3%) 14,976 (5.8%) 12,583 (10.5%) 42,514 (2.0%)
 Hypertension 265,702 (18.8%) 161,622 (41.9%) 136,905 (52.8%) 60,133 (50.3%) 624,362 (28.7%)
 Ischaemic Stroke 9833 (0.7%) 11,097 (2.9%) 15,836 (6.1%) 10,617 (8.9%) 47,383 (2.2%)
 Malignancy 48,115 (3.4%) 32,230 (8.4%) 29,796 (11.5%) 14,646 (12.3%) 124,787 (5.7%)
 Peripheral Arterial Disease 8144 (0.6%) 9541 (2.5%) 11,073 (4.3%) 4992 (4.2%) 33,750 (1.6%)
 Rheumatoid Arthritis 11,149 (0.8%) 6244 (1.6%) 5236 (2.0%) 2169 (1.8%) 24,798 (1.1%)
 Transient Ischaemic Attack 8065 (0.6%) 10,774 (2.8%) 15,795 (6.1%) 10,916 (9.1%) 45,550 (2.1%)
 Diabetes 89,567 (6.3%) 49,954 (13.0%) 37,755 (14.6%) 13,514 (11.3%) 190,790 (8.8%)
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 28,352 (2.0%) 22,538 (5.9%) 20,399 (7.9%) 7395 (6.2%) 78,684 (3.6%)
 Chronic Kidney Disease 83,821 (5.9%) 42,059 (10.9%) 36,783 (14.2%) 19,404 (16.2%) 182,067 (8.4%)
 Asthma 95,438 (6.8%) 31,682 (8.2%) 20,747 (8.0%) 6365 (5.3%) 154,232 (7.1%)
 Osteoporosis 26,939 (1.9%) 21,884 (5.7%) 24,155 (9.3%) 14,096 (11.8%) 87,074 (4.0%)
 Morbid obesity risk group 46,465 (3.3%) 9516 (2.5%) 3799 (1.5%) 697 (0.6%) 60,477 (2.8%)
BMI category a
 Underweight 10,660 (1.2%) 4749 (1.6%) 6520 (3.5%) 5547 (8.8%) 27,476 (1.9%)
 Normal 270,394 (29.3%) 88,178 (29.9%) 70,979 (37.9%) 31,659 (50.4%) 461,210 (31.4%)
 Overweight 350,099 (38.0%) 119,969 (40.7%) 72,079 (38.4%) 18,858 (30.3%) 561,005 (38.2%)
 Obese 290,704 (31.5%) 82,017 (27.8%) 37,970 (20.3%) 6743 (10.7%) 417,434 (28.5%)
Missing b 491,719 (34.8%) 90,561 (23.5%) 71,577 (27.6%) 56,674 (47.4%) 710,531 (32.6%)
Vaccinations
 Flu vaccination 248,157 (17.6%) 269,364 (69.9%) 187,976 (72.5%) 71,906 (60.2%) 777,403 (35.7%)
 Pneumococcal vaccination 119,926 (8.5%) 231,908 (60.2%) 184,638 (71.3%) 77,218 (64.6%) 613,690 (28.2%)
Smoking status a
 Non-smoker 539,051 (40.7%) 138,073 (37.9%) 94,660 (39.7%) 51,381 (52.4%) 823,165 (40.6%)
 Ex-smoker 437,970 (33.0%) 157,393 (43.2%) 109,868 (46.1%) 37,801 (38.5%) 743,032 (36.7%)
 Active smoker 348,396 (26.3%) 68,858 (18.9%) 33,807 (14.2%) 8904 (9.1%) 459,965 (22.7%)
Missing b 88,159 (6.2%) 21,150 (5.5%) 20,790 (8.0%) 21,395 (17.9%) 151,494 (7.0%)
Prescriptions
 median 4 18 32 39 8
 Upper: lower quartile [0: 15] [4: 42] [12: 60] [16: 71] [1: 29]
  1. a% as proportion of known values
  2. bmissing values as % of cohort