Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations between social isolation on SRH, cognitive impairment, difficulty with ADLs, difficulty with IADLs

From: Social isolation and health outcomes among older people in China

  Poor SRH Cognitive impairment Difficulty with ADLs Difficulty with IADLs
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  ORs (95%CI) ORs (95%CI) ORs (95%CI) ORs (95%CI)
Kinlessness     
Have no spouse (ref.=married and live with spouse)     
Never married 2.44* 2.06 0.60 1.15
  (1.20,4.93) (0.83,5.07) (0.24,1.51) (0.52,2.54)
Recent loss of spouse 1.14 0.98 1.22 1.46*
  (0.88,1.47) (0.66,1.44) (0.88,1.70) (1.08,1.98)
Distant loss of spouse 0.92 1.11 0.88 1.08
  (0.80,1.07) (0.88,1.38) (0.73,1.07) (0.91,1.27)
Have no children (ref.=have living children )     
Did not give birth 0.87 0.53* 1.21 0.85
  (0.56,1.34) (0.29,0.99) (0.71,2.06) (0.49,1.47)
Recent loss of children 0.98 0.97 0.95 1.32*
  (0.81,1.18) (0.76,1.24) (0.75,1.19) (1.04,1.68)
Distant loss of children 0.92 0.66 0.98 2.11
  (0.57,1.50) (0.37,1.17) (0.56,1.72) (0.98,4.55)
Have no siblings (ref.=have living siblings)     
Have no siblings in lifetime 1.22 0.99 0.99 1.19
  (0.94,1.59) (0.68,1.43) (0.71,1.38) (0.87,1.64)
Recent loss of siblings 1.20 1.00 0.89 1.02
  (0.98,1.47) (0.72,1.39) (0.67,1.18) (0.81,1.28)
Distant loss of siblings 1.00 1.08 0.93 1.12
  (0.86,1.16) (0.88,1.31) (0.78,1.12) (0.93,1.34)
Lack of social contacts     
Live alone 1.03 0.71 0.39** 0.65
  (0.70,1.51) (0.40,1.26) (0.21,0.72) (0.42,1.02)
Had no children visiting 1.09 1.17 1.21 1.25*
  (0.92,1.30) (0.93,1.48) (0.98,1.49) (1.02,1.54)
Had no siblings visiting 0.97 0.90 0.85 1.15
  (0.83,1.15) (0.69,1.18) (0.67,1.07) (0.95,1.38)
Not participating in social activities 0.95 1.07 1.00 0.89
  (0.79,1.14) (0.80,1.44) (0.78,1.29) (0.72,1.11)
Subjective social isolation     
Felt lonely 1.19* 1.27* 1.28** 1.21*
  (1.03,1.37) (1.03,1.57) (1.07,1.54) (1.02,1.44)
Had no one to talk 2.08*** 5.32*** 2.06*** 1.98**
  (1.51,2.88) (3.75,7.55) (1.49,2.84) (1.30,3.01)
Had no one to seek for help 1.01 1.27 1.10 0.88
  (0.82,1.24) (0.97,1.66) (0.86,1.42) (0.69,1.13)
  1. Notes: All models adjusted for age, sex, self-rated SES, education, rural area, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, leisure activities and social services. In terms of baseline (measured in 2011) health status, Model 1adjusted for SRH in 2011, Model 2 adjusted for MMSE in 2011, Model 3 adjusted for ADLs in 2011, and Model 4 adjusted for IADLs in 2011.
  2. * P <0.05, ** P <0.01, *** P <0.001