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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics between different frailty phenotype and frailty index trajectories

From: Longitudinal changes of frailty in 8 years: comparisons between physical frailty and frailty index

Data show number (%) or mean ± standard deviation Number with information available Total Frailty phenotype (FP) Frailty index (FI)
Stably robust Worsened frailty Improved frailty Stably frail P for trend Stable FI Moderate increase FI Rapid increase FI P for trend
Number (%) 2807 2807 (100) 1960 (69.8) 440 (15.7) 248 (8.8%) 159 (5.7%)   1941 (69.1) 604 (21.5) 262 (9.3%)  
Baseline demographics
 Age (years) 2807 63.4 ± 8.2 61.9 ± 7.8 67.3 ± 7.9 65.2 ± 8.0 68.8 ± 7.5 < 0.001 61.6 ± 7.7 66.5 ± 7.6 69.9 ± 7.4 < 0.001
 Male sex 2807 1410 (50.2) 1086 (55.4) 200 (45.5) 70 (28.2) 54 (34.0) < 0.001 1118 (57.6) 201 (33.3) 91 (34.7) < 0.001
 Education (years) 2646 5.2 ± 4.6 6.0 ± 4.6 4.0 ± 4.1 2.7 ± 3.5 2.8 ± 3.9 < 0.001 6.2 ± 4.5 3.0 ± 3.7 2.6 ± 3.9 < 0.001
 Marital status 2807       < 0.001     < 0.001
 Married/cohabiting   2059 (73.4) 1523 (77.7) 277 (63.0) 163 (65.7) 96 (60.4)   1535 (79.1) 381 (63.1) 143 (54.6)  
 Urbanization of residential area 2792       0.003     0.002
 Large + big city   1025 (36.7) 741 (38.0) 162 (36.9) 67 (27.3) 55 (34.8)   735 (38.1) 200 (33.3) 90 (34.5)  
 Small city + township   846 (30.3) 598 (30.7) 122 (27.8) 80 (32.7) 46 (29.1)   603 (31.2) 168 (28.0) 75 (28.7)  
 Township (rural)   921 (33.0) 611 (31.3) 155 (35.3) 98 (40.0) 57 (36.1)   592 (30.7) 233 (38.8) 96 (36.8)  
 Alcohol consumption 2804 397 (14.2) 315 (16.1) 55 (12.5) 20 (8.1) 7 (4.4) < 0.001 321 (16.6) 58 (9.6) 18 (6.9) < 0.001
 Current smoker 2800 646 (23.1) 482 (24.7) 96 (21.9) 42 (16.9) 26 (16.4) 0.001 494 (25.5) 105 (17.4) 47 (17.9) < 0.001
 Difficulty meeting living expanses 2718 761 (28.0) 434 (22.7) 143 (33.8) 112 (46.5) 72 (51.8) < 0.001 412 (21.7) 257 (44.1) 92 (39.0) < 0.001
Medical history
 Good self-rated health 2807 1113 (39.7) 953 (48.6) 121 (27.5) 26 (10.5) 13 (8.2) < 0.001 960 (49.5) 109 (18.0) 44 (16.8) < 0.001
 Number of morbidities 2807 1.5 ± 1.5 1.3 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 1.7 2.7 ± 1.8 < 0.001 1.2 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.6 2.6 ± 1.8 < 0.001
 Hypertension 2807 871 (31.0) 540 (27.6) 176 (40.0) 87 (35.1) 68 (42.8) < 0.001 506 (26.1) 239 (39.6) 126 (48.1) < 0.001
 Diabetes 2807 326 (11.6) 182 (9.3) 73 (16.6) 35 (14.1) 36 (22.6) < 0.001 162 (8.3) 96 (15.9) 68 (26.0) < 0.001
 Heart disease 2807 447 (15.9) 256 (13.1) 88 (20.0) 65 (26.2) 38 (23.9) < 0.001 227 (11.7) 160 (26.5) 60 (22.9) < 0.001
 Stroke 2807 90 (3.2) 27 (1.4) 19 (4.3) 13 (5.2) 31 (19.5) < 0.001 29 (1.5) 21 (3.5) 40 (15.3) < 0.001
 Cancer 2807 63 (2.2) 38 (1.9) 15 (3.4) 6 (2.4) 4 (2.5) 0.166 31 (1.6) 20 (3.3) 12 (4.6) 0.001
 Chronic lung disease 2807 288 (10.3) 166 (8.5) 51 (11.6) 44 (17.7) 27 (17.0) < 0.001 161 (8.3) 92 (15.2) 35 (13.4) < 0.001
 Arthritis 2807 551 (19.6) 313 (16.0) 98 (22.3) 91 (36.7) 49 (30.8) < 0.001 293 (15.1) 188 (31.1) 70 (26.7) < 0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease 2807 540 (19.2) 339 (17.3) 86 (19.5) 67 (27.0) 48 (30.2) < 0.001 337 (17.4) 146 (24.2) 57 (21.8) 0.001
 Hepatobiliary disease 2807 191 (6.8) 115 (5.9) 44 (10.0) 16 (6.5) 16 (10.1) 0.035 106 (5.5) 60 (9.9) 25 (9.5) < 0.001
 Hip fracture 2807 48 (1.7) 28 (1.4) 6 (1.4) 7 (2.8) 7 (4.4) 0.002 19 (1.0) 22 (3.6) 7 (2.7) < 0.001
 Cataract 2807 606 (21.6) 343 (17.5) 131 (29.8) 71 (28.6) 61 (38.4) < 0.001 295 (15.2) 202 (33.4) 109 (41.6) < 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease (includes stones) 2807 195 (6.9) 116 (5.9) 39 (8.9) 20 (8.1) 20 (12.6) < 0.001 103 (5.3) 58 (9.6) 34 (13.0) < 0.001
 Gout 2807 170 (6.1) 95 (4.8) 39 (8.9) 19 (7.7) 17 (10.7) < 0.001 97 (5.0) 45 (7.5) 28 (10.7) < 0.001
Functional assessments
 Mobility impairment score (0–9) 2807 1.8 ± 2.4 1.0 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 2.2 4.1 ± 2.7 6.1 ± 2.4 < 0.001 1.0 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 2.5 4.8 ± 2.8 < 0.001
 ADL impairment score (0–6) 2807 0.11 ± 0.71 0.02 ± 0.24 0.07 ± 0.51 0.20 ± 0.59 1.27 ± 2.17 < 0.001 0.01 ± 0.14 0.16 ± 0.81 0.82 ± 1.79 < 0.001
 IADL impairment score (0–6) 2807 0.57 ± 1.22 0.22 ± 0.61 0.73 ± 1.22 1.35 ± 1.67 3.13 ± 2.06 < 0.001 0.18 ± 0.52 1.05 ± 1.46 2.37 ± 2.07 < 0.001
 SPMSQ (age ≥ 65) 1266 7.2 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 1.2 7.0 ± 1.5 6.7 ± 1.7 6.3 ± 1.9 < 0.001 7.6 ± 0.8 6.7 ± 1.7 6.3 ± 1.9 < 0.001
 CES-D-10 score (0–30) 2701 4.6 ± 5.3 3.2 ± 4.0 5.2 ± 5.3 9.9 ± 6.1 12.1 ± 6.8 < 0.001 3.1 ± 3.8 7.9 ± 6.4 8.3 ± 7.0 < 0.001
 Visual impairment 2800 361 (12.9) 165 (8.4) 73 (16.6) 58 (23.4) 65 (40.9) < 0.001 132 (6.8) 139 (23.1) 90 (34.4) < 0.001
 Hearing impairment 2792 218 (7.8) 105 (5.4) 56 (12.8) 25 (10.1) 32 (20.1) < 0.001 95 (4.9) 65 (10.9) 58 (22.1) < 0.001
 Oral intake difficulty 2792 531 (19.0) 271 (13.9) 116 (26.5) 81 (33.1) 63 (40.6) < 0.001 249 (12.9) 179 (29.9) 103 (39.6) < 0.001
 Any social participation 2793 1453 (52.0) 1105 (56.6) 191 (43.9) 103 (42.0) 54 (34.0) < 0.001 1097 (56.7) 248 (41.5) 108 (41.4) < 0.001
Frailty assessments
 Frailty phenotype components            
 Slowness 2806 384 (13.7) 74 (3.8) 64 (14.5) 130 (52.4) 116 (73.0) < 0.001 87 (4.5) 171 (28.3) 126 (48.1) < 0.001
 Weakness 2806 141 (5.0) 24 (1.2) 14 (3.2) 40 (16.2) 63 (39.6) < 0.001 37 (1.9) 46 (7.6) 58 (22.2) < 0.001
 Low physical activity 2719 514 (18.9) 231 (12.2) 70 (16.4) 129 (52.9) 84 (53.5) < 0.001 292 (15.6) 138 (23.5) 84 (32.7) < 0.001
 Exhaustion 2719 506 (18.6) 159 (8.3) 76 (17.8) 170 (70.5) 101 (73.7) < 0.001 188 (9.9) 222 (37.9) 96 (41.0) < 0.001
 Weight loss (BMI ≤18.5) 2740 119 (4.3) 36 (1.9) 20 (4.7) 43 (17.8) 20 (13.3) < 0.001 65 (3.4) 38 (6.6) 16 (6.5) 0.001
 Summed FP score (0–5) 2807 0.59 ± 0.88 0.26 ± 0.48 0.55 ± 0.63 2.06 ± 0.75 2.42 ± 0.97 < 0.001 0.34 ± 0.61 1.02 ± 1.02 1.45 ± 1.27 < 0.001
 Frailty index 2807 0.14 ± 0.10 0.11 ± 0.05 0.16 ± 0.08 0.23 ± 0.10 0.33 ± 0.13 < 0.001 0.10 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.09 0.28 ± 0.14 < 0.001
  1. ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living, SPMSQ Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, CES-D-10 Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, 10-item Likert score, BMI body mass index