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Table 3 Within and between-group analysis of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), thriving and self-determination among home care receivers

From: Effects of a person-centred and health-promoting intervention in home care services– a non-randomized controlled trial

  Within group analysis Intervention groupa Cohens’ d Within group analysis Control groupa Cohens’ d Between group analysis Intervention/Contol b   Cohens d
n Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
p-value n Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
p-value p-value
EQ-5D (−0.53–1.0) 27 0.68(0.2) 0.66(0.18) 0.616   28 0.71 (0.24) 0.64 (25) 0.051   0.288 (−0.148, 0.450)  
EQ-VAS (0–100) 33 52 (19) 53(22) 0.756   34 62 (22) 56 (23) 0.045* 0.27 0.196 −16.525, 3.456  
NHP (0–100)
 Energy 31 43 (39) 54 (41) 0.025* 0.27 31 43 (39) 51 (44) 0.198   0.516 −21.682, 11.016  
 Pain 29 33 (32) 31 (32) 0.614   27 31 (33) 31 (31) 0.885   0.571 −6.989, 12.525  
 Emotions 29 17 (17) 24 (23) 0.039* 0.35 26 14 (18) 14 (23) 0.862   0.048 (−17.435, −0.098) 0,43
 Sleep 34 36 (30) 37 (27) 0.872   29 31 (24) 29 (26) 0.515   0.677 −14.558, 9.526  
 Isolation 34 16 (19) 18 (19) 0.521   30 13 (16) 18 (22) 0.229   0.331 −5.051,14.761  
 Mobility 30 44 (24) 46 (24) 0.682   28 46 (30) 50 (34) 0.271   0.708 −8.482,12.398  
TOPAS (number of scores in scale)
 Total score (32–192) 19 157 (17) 153 (17) 0.354   17 151 (18) 144 (22) 0.009* 0.35 0.325 −16.147, 5.514  
 Residents’ attitude (4–24) 35 23 (2) 22 (3) 0.110   34 23 (2) 22 (2) 0.472   0.306 −0.564, 1.769  
 Quality of care (9–54) 33 50 (4) 49 (4) 0.540   29 49 (4) 48 (6) 0.026* 0.20 0.159 −4.448, 0.746  
 Activities and peer relationships (8–48) 23 33 (12) 34 (11) 0.531   21 31 (11) 27 (12) 0.015*   0.026* (−10. 766, −0.717) 0,75
 Opportunities to keep in touch (4–24) 32 19 (4) 18 (5) 0.147   29 19 (5) 18 (5) 0.114   0.820 −2.076, 2.609  
 Physical environment (5–25) 32 29 (2) 28 (2) 0.273   29 28 (2) 28 (3) 0.019* 0.0 0.715 −1.168, 0.806  
IPA-O (number of scores in scale)
 Self-determination, mobility (4–20) 36 6.2 (3.1) 6.7 (3.8) 0.505   35 6.3 (4.0) 6.0 (2.9) 0.623   0.694 −2.590, 1.734  
 Self-determination, self-care (5–25) 36 5.6 (1.4) 6.0 (2.3) 0.180   37 6.5 (4.1) 6.7 (2.8) 0.757   0.771 −1.718, 1.279  
 Self-determination, household activities (4–20) 25 7.0 (4.3) 8.1 (3.8) 0.202   27 9.1 (3.5) 7.7 (3.9) 0.099   0.060 −5.174, 0.166  
 Social relationships (5–25) 34 7.5 (2.6) 8.4 (2.9) 0.041* 0.33 37 8.3 (4.0) 8.4 (3.8) 0.877   0.261 −2.296, 0.633  
  1. aPaired-sample t-test
  2. b between group analysis of within group changes using linear regression adjusting for the variables Living alone and Housing
  3. *Statistically significant difference p-value ≥0.05
  4. EQ-5D EuroQol-five dimensions, EQ-VAS = EuroQol visual analogue scale, IPA-O Impact on Participation and Autonomy – Older Persons questionnaire, NHP Nottingham Health Profile, SD Standard deviation, TOPAS Thriving of Older People Assessment Scale
  5. For the EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, TOPAS, a high value = positive outcome; for NHP and IPA-O, a high value = negative outcome