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Table 3 Categories of Interventions

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical effectiveness of self-management interventions in Parkinson’s disease

Category Details Number of Studies
(i) Self-management education and training programmes All but one were group-based, ranging from 4 to 20 participants per group for those that specified, delivered by trained staff, and provided paper hand-outs. The other was delivered remotely, via mail, tailoring according to participant questionnaire responses [33]. Content topics are described in Table 3. 13
(ii) Self-management training combined with other therapies. The other therapies were:
• Multidisciplinary rehabilitation
• Physical exercise
• Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
• Multidisciplinary care co-ordination
• Mindfulness
These mostly followed a group session model too, though when combined with CBT and care-coordination this was done on an individual basis. One study compared a group-based delivery of exercise and self-management training with a self-guided equivalent programme [24].
(iii) Specific self-management skill of self-monitoring These made use of digital devices to self-monitor:
• Symptoms and medication
• Posture
• Physical activity
These were performed on an individual basis, though the physical activity monitoring also included an online peer support group.
(iv) Self-management of individual clinical features of Parkinson’s Clinical features targeted:
• Anxiety, using CBT - individual
• Drooling, via a digital cueing device - individual
• Communication difficulties through Speech & Language Therapy (SLT) – small groups, based on diagnosis.
(v) Self-management of specific treatments, i.e. self-guided treatment programmes These included:
• Medication
• Physical exercise
• Handwriting exercises
• Acupressure & conduction exercise
For these the individual was either taught or instructed on how to self-pursue the treatment. These studies either evaluated the self-guided delivery of a treatment, or compared different delivery methods for established interventions.