Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 291)

From: Increased recurrent falls experience in older adults with coexisting of sarcopenia and knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

Variable Mean ± SD or no. (%) p-value
Control
n = 90
Isolated sarcopenia
n = 12
Isolated knee OA
n = 164
Sarcopenia + knee OA
n = 25
Age, years 70.3 ± 6.4 75.3 ± 7.3 72.9 ± 6.6†1 78.7 ± 7.5†1,3 < 0.001
Female 68 (75.6) 8 (66.7) 131 (79.9) 22 (88.0) 0.393
Height, cm 154.9 ± 7.4 152.1 ± 5.2 154.6 ± 7.1 149.8 ± 6.4†1,3 0.007
Mass, kg 56.7 ± 9.1 48.1 ± 8.2†1 59.4 ± 9.9†2 51.7 ± 9.7†3 < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 23.6 ± 3.0 20.7 ± 2.8†1 24.8 ± 3.8†1,2 23.1 ± 4.5 < 0.001
Obesity*1 3 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 14 (8.5) 1 (4.0) 0.282
Index knee K&L grade      < 0.001
Grade 0 2 (2.2) 1 (8.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Grade 1 88 (97.8) 11 (91.7) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Grade 2 0 (0) 0 (0) 107 (65.3) 11 (44.0)  
Grade 3 0 (0) 0 (0) 37 (22.6) 11 (44.0)  
Grade 4 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (12.2) 3 (12.0)  
JKOM, points      
Pain and stiffness*2,3 5.43 ± 5.09; 4.5 [1, 8] 6.08 ± 6.83; 4.5 [0, 12] 8.87 ± 6.49; 8 [4, 13]†1 8.20 ± 5.69; 8 [3, 12] < 0.001
Activities of daily living*2,3 4.14 ± 4.87; 2 [1, 7] 5.75 ± 5.85; 4.5 [0, 11] 7.47 ± 6.97; 5 [2, 12]†1 9.68 ± 6.05; 9 [6, 14]†1 < 0.001
Physical function      
Gait velocity, m/s 1.27 ± 0.21 1.06 ± 0.26†1 1.18 ± 0.22†1 1.01 ± 0.24†1,3 < 0.001
Handgrip strength, kg 25.8 ± 6.7 17.1 ± 5.3†1 25.5 ± 6.4†2 15.9 ± 3.8†1,3 < 0.001
Muscle volume      
Skeletal muscle index, kg/m2 6.25 ± 0.80 5.50 ± 0.91†1 6.47 ± 0.78†2 5.41 ± 0.44†1,3 < 0.001
Pre-sarcopenia 37 (41.1) 0 (0.0) 37 (22.6) 0 (0.0) NA
Sarcopenia 0 (0.0) 12 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 25 (100.0) NA
Severe sarcopenia 0 (0.0) 11 (91.7) 0 (0.0) 24 (96.0) NA
  1. BMI, body mass index; JKOM, Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure; K&L grade, Kellgren and Lawrence grade; NA, not applicable; OA, osteoarthritis; SD, standard deviation
  2. p-values are based on unadjusted analyses (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, or Fisher’s exact test)
  3. *1 Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
  4. *2 Higher scores indicate severe knee pain or severe disability
  5. *3 Median [interquartile range] was also provided because of the scattered distribution of the answered items
  6. †1 p < 0.05 compared to control †2 p < 0.05 compared to isolated sarcopenia
  7. †3 p < 0.05 compared to isolated knee OA