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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression of correlates of insomnia in older adults

From: Factors associated with insomnia in older adult outpatients vary by gender: a cross-sectional study

    Model 1b   Model 2c  
Characteristica Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
p value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
p value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
p value
Gender (female) 2.00 (1.29-3.09) 0.002 2.25 (1.33-3.82) 0.003 2.35 (1.36-4.06) 0.002
Appetite within 3 months (poor) 3.75 (2.03-6.93) < 0.001 3.02 (1.53-5.95) 0.001 3.87 (1.88-7.97) < 0.001
Exercise (none / irregular) 1.73 (1.11-2.68) 0.015
Sleeping pills usage (yes) 2.51 (1.62-3.89) < 0.001 1.96 (1.21-3.19) 0.006 1.90 (1.14-3.16) 0.013
OSA risk (Medium-High) 2.00 (1.24-3.24) 0.005 2.99 (1.67-5.33) < 0.001 2.87 (1.56-5.26) 0.001
Depression (GDS ≥ 2) 4.10 (2.53-6.65) < 0.001 2.69 (1.58-4.56) < 0.001 2.79 (1.59-4.87) < 0.001
RLS (yes) 5.55 (1.89-16.35) 0.002 5.22 (1.66-16.40) 0.005 5.10 (1.52-17.14) 0.008
Sleep duration (≤ 6 h) 3.41 (2.12-5.49) < 0.001 4.13 (2.38-7.17) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: OSA obstructive sleep apnea, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, RLS restless leg syndrome
  2. aOnly the significant variables in univariate logistic regression analysis are listed here
  3. bLogistic regression analysis with the forward stepwise method in model 1 was adjusted for all factors in the Table 1 except for sleep duration
  4. cResults in model 2 were derived from Model 1 with sleep duration added as another covariate