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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Factors associated with insomnia in older adult outpatients vary by gender: a cross-sectional study

  Total Non-Insomnia
(AIS < 6)
Insomnia
(AIS ≥ 6)
 
Characteristics n = 400 (%) n = 280 (%) n = 120 (%) p value
Age (60 – 97 years) a 74.74 ± 8.54 74.88 ± 8.54 74.43 ± 8.55 0.630
Sleep duration (hrs)     < 0.001
 ≤ 6 h 221 (55.2) 131 (59.3) 90 (40.7)  
 >  6 h 179 (44.8) 149 (83.2) 30 (16.8)  
Gender     0.002
 Male 201 (50.2) 155 (77.1) 46 (22.9)  
 Female 199 (49.8) 125 (62.8) 74 (37.2)  
Obesity (BMI > =27)     0.094
 Yes 98 (24.5) 62 (63.3) 36 (36.7)  
 No 302(75.5) 218 (72.2) 84 (27.8)  
Education     0.061
 ≤ 9 years (junior) 242 (60.5) 161 (66.5) 81 (33.5)  
 ≥ 10 years 158 (39.5) 119 (75.3) 39 (24.7)  
Marital status     0.161
 Married 254 (63.5) 184 (72.4) 70 (27.6)  
 Other 146 (36.5) 96 (65.8) 50 (34.2)  
Residential status     0.243
 Live alone 42 (10.5) 28 (66.7) 14 (33.3)  
 Live with others 351(87.8) 249 (70.9) 102 (29.1)  
 Nursing home 7 (1.8) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1)  
Occupational activity     0.355
 Working 42 (10.5) 32 (76.2) 10 (23.8)  
 Not working 358 (89.5) 248 (69.3) 110 (30.7)  
Current smoking     0.064
 Yes 32 (8.0) 27 (84.4) 5 (15.6)  
 No 368 (92.0) 253 (68.8) 115 (31.2)  
Current alcohol drinking     0.061
 Yes 8 (2.0) 8 (100) 0 (0)  
 No 392 (98.0) 272 (69.4) 120 (30.6)  
Drink Coffee     0.629
 Yes 137 (34.2) 98 (71.5) 39 (28.5)  
 No 263 (65.8) 182 (69.2) 81 (30.8)  
Appetite within 3 months     < 0.001
 Fair 351 (87.8) 259 (73.8) 92 (26.2)  
 Poor 49 (12.2) 21 (42.9) 28 (57.1)  
Exercise habits     0.015
 Yes (Regular) 262 (65.5) 194 (74.0) 68 (26.0)  
 No (non or irregular) 138 (34.5) 86 (62.3) 52 (37.7)  
Afternoon Nap     0.707
 Yes 231 (57.8) 160 (69.3) 71 (30.7)  
 No 169 (42.2) 120 (71.0) 49 (29.0)  
Sleeping pills usage     < 0.001
 Yes 167 (41.2) 98 (58.7) 69 (41.3)  
 No 233 (58.3) 182 (78.1) 51 (21.9)  
Any chronic diseaseb     0.060
 Yes 372 (93.0) 256 (68.8) 116 (31.2)  
 No 28 (7.0) 24 (85.7) 4 (14.3)  
Dementia (documented)     0.822
 Yes 74 (18.5) 51 (68.9) 23 (31.1)  
 No 326 (81.5) 229 (70.2) 97 (29.8)  
Activities of Daily Living     0.847
 Total independence 365(91.3) 255 (69.9) 110 (30.1)  
 Dependence 35 (8.2) 25 (71.4) 10 (28.6)  
Depression by GDS-5     < 0.001
 No (< 2) 304 (76.0) 236 (77.6) 68 (22.4)  
 Yes (≥ 2) 96 (24.0) 44 (45.8) 52 (54.2)  
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (risk)     0.004
 Low 138 (34.5) 109 (79.0) 29 (21.0)  
 Medium-High 262 (65.5) 171 (65.3) 91 (34.7)  
Restless Leg Syndrome     0.001
 No 384 (96.0) 275 (71.6) 109 (28.4)  
 Yes 16 (4.0) 5 (31.3) 11 (68.8)  
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, GDS-5 Geriatric Depression Scale-5
  2. aContinuous variables are presented as mean ± SD
  3. bChronic disease is defined as having any type of chronic disease for more than 3 months