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Table 6 The GRADE assessment for the overall certainty of evidence across studies

From: Effects of different exercise training modes on muscle strength and physical performance in older people with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessment Number of patients Effect Quality Importance
Number of studies Design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations Muscle strength Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute   
KES subgroup (follow-up 0–24 weeks; Better indicated by lower values)
 17 randomised trials seriousa serious
(I2 = 75)
no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 415 394 SMD 0.86 higher (0.55 to 1.16 higher)  OO
LOW
CRITICAL
TUG subgroup (follow-up 0–24 weeks; Better indicated by lower values)
 9 randomised trials seriousb serious
(I2 = 60)
no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 279 264 SMD 0.66 lower (0.94 to 0.38 lower)  OO
LOW
CRITICAL
GS subgroup (follow-up 0–24 weeks; Better indicated by lower values)
 17 randomised trials seriousc serious
(I2 = 87)
no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 500 465 SMD 0.82 higher (0.43 to 1.21 higher)  OO
LOW
CRITICAL
CS subgroup (follow-up 0–24 weeks; Better indicated by lower values)
 10 randomised trials seriousd serious
(I2 = 87)
no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 313 298 SMD 0.11 higher (0.36 lower to 0.57 higher)  OO
LOW
  1. KES knee extension strength, TUG timed up and go, GS gait speed, CS chair stand
  2. a Of the 17 studies, 6 not performed concealed allocation and 9 were not blinded for assessors
  3. b Of the 9 studies, 6 were not blinded for assessors. c Of the 17 studies, 10 were not blinded for assessors. d Of the 10 studies, 6 were not blinded for assessors