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Table 2 Characteristics of Included Studies Whole Body Vibration Training as an Exercise Training Mode

From: Effects of different exercise training modes on muscle strength and physical performance in older people with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

VT Study Sample size (ETG/CG) M/F Age Sarcopenia diagnostics Intervention Control group Outcome
Mode Training movement Intensity Duration Days/week (weeks)
1 Bellomo et al. (2013) [43] 10/10 20/0 70.9 ± 5.2 MMI by DXA, < 2 standard deviations of a young reference population (CDC) Vibratory mechine Received a focused vibratory stimulation; The stimulation was applied on the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis; rectus femoris muscles. 300 Hz W1–8:
1 session
/week; W9–12: 3 session
s/week
Non-WBV KES
2 Wei et al. (2016) [48] 20/20 12/28 75 ± 6/76 ± 6 SMI by BIA, M: < 8.87 kg/m2, F: < 6.42 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010) WBV platform Stood on the platform of a WBV machine without shoes, knees were kept at 60° of flexion, hands placed onto the rail in front for support 40 Hz, 4 mm; 4sets x 90s (6 min) 3(12) Non-WBV SMI; KES; TUG, CS, GS
3 Zhu et al. (2016) [54] 28/27 55/0 89.5 ± 4.4/87.5 ± 3.0 SMI by DXA: M: < 7.0 kg/m2, F: < 5.4 kg/m2 (AWGS) WBV platform stand on the WBV plate, hands clasping the WBV rope, with legs and knees slightly bent 12–16 Hz, 3–5 mm 5(8) Non-WBV SMM; HGS; GS, TUG, CS
4 Zhu et al. (2019) [55] 28/27 55/0 89.5 ± 4.4/87.5 ± 3.0 SMI by DXA, M: < 7.0 kg/m2, F: < 5.4 kg/m2; BIA, M: < 7.0 kg/m2, F: < 5.7 kg/m2 (AWGS) WBV platform stand on the WBV plate, with legs and knees slightly bent, hands clasping the WBV rope 12–16 Hz, 3–5 mm; 5 groups/time, 3 min/group. 5(8) Non- WBV MM; HGS, KES; TUG, CS
5 Wei et al. (2016) [44] LG/CG:
20/20
12/28 78 ± 4 /76 ± 6 SMI by BIA, M: < 8.87 kg/m2, F: < 6.42 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010) WBV platform Stood barefoot with knee joint flexed at 60° on the platform of a whole-body WBV machine; hands holding onto the rail in front for support. 20 Hz × 720 s (12mins), 4 mm 3(12) Non-WBV SMI; KES
MG/CG:
20/20
12/28 75 ± 6/76 ± 6 40 Hz × 360 s (6mins), 4 mm
HG/CG:
20/20
10/30 74 ± 5/76 ± 6 60 Hz × 240 s (4mins), 4 mm
6 Wei et al. (2017) [49] LG/CG:
20/20
12/28 78 ± 4/76 ± 6 SMI by BIA, M: < 8.87 kg/m2, F: < 6.42 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010) WBV platform stood barefoot with knee joint flexed at 60° on the platform of the WBV machine with hands holding onto the rail in front for support 20 Hz × 720 s, 4 mm 3(12) Non-WBV SMI; TUG, CS, GS
MG/CG:
20/20
12/28 75 ± 6/76 ± 6 40 Hz × 360 s, 4 mm
HG/CG:
20/20
10/30 74 ± 5/76 ± 6 60 Hz × 240 s, 4 mm
  1. VT vibration training, ETG exercise training group, CG control group, WBV whole body vibration training, M male, F female, W week, DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA Bioelectrical impedance analysis, MM muscle mass, MMI muscle mass index (MMI = muscle mass/height2 [MMI/m2]), SMM skeletal muscle mass, SMI skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/ height2 [SMI/m2]), AWGS Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, HGS hand grip strength, KES knee extension strength, GS gait speed, TUG Timed Up and Go, CS Chair stand, LG low frequency and long exercise time group, MG medium frequency and medium exercise time group, HG high frequency and short exercise time group