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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies with Resistance Training as an Exercise Training Mode

From: Effects of different exercise training modes on muscle strength and physical performance in older people with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

RT Study Sample size (ETG/CG) M/F Age Sarcopenia diagnostics Intervention Control group Outcome
Mode Training movement Intensity Duration Days/week (weeks)
1 Bellomo et al. (2013) [43] 10/10 20/0 Average: 70.9 ± 5.2 MMI by DXA, < 2 standard deviations of a young reference population (CDC) Weight machine leg press and leg extension W1–4:
3 sets/12 reps, 60–70% FMT; W5–8:
3 sets/10 reps, 75–80% FMT; W9–12:
3 sets/6–8 reps, 80–85% FMT
2(12) Non-exercise KES
2 Cebrià et al. (2018) [45] 11/17 7/21 82.6 ± 9.1/81.2 ± 5.4 ASMI by BIA, M:
≤0.93 kg/m2, F:≤0.57 kg/m2; GS,
M: 0.95–0.66 m/s; F: 0.08–0.48 m/s (Tyrovolas)
Dumbbells, and ankle/wrist weights UL: handgrip, wrist flexion/extension, forearm pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension
/adduction/abduction;
LL: ankle flexion/
extension, knee extension, and hip flexion/abduction/
adduction
10 sets/12 reps, 40–60% 1RM 3(12) Non-exercise ASMI; HGS, KES; GS
3 Chen et al. (2017) [42] 15/15 5/25 68.9 ± 4.4/68.6 ± 3.1 ASMI by BIA, M:
≤32.5%, F: ≤25.7% (Chung)
Weight machine shoulder presses, bicep curls, triceps curls, bench presses, deadlifts, leg swings, squats, standing rows, unilateral rows, split front squats 3 sets/8–12 reps; 60–70% 1RM 2(8) Non-exercise ASMI, SMM; HGS, KES
4 Hamaguchi et al. (2017) [51] 7/8 0/15 60.4 ± 2.7/60.6 ± 2.3 SMI by DXA, < 6.12 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010) Weighted vest squats, front lunges, side lunges, calf raises, toe raises 8 sets/3 reps 2(6) Non-exercise SMI; HGS, KES
5 Liao et al. (2017) [52] 25/21 0/46 66.39 ± 4.49/68.42 ± 5.86 SMI by DXA, F: ≤7.15 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010) Thera-band seated chest press, seated row, seated shoulder press, Concentric–eccentric hip circumduction, leg press, leg curl 3 sets/10 reps; Intensity: Borg RPE 13 3(12) Non-exercise SMI; HGS, KES; GS, TUG, CS;
6 Liao et al. (2018) [53] 30/20 0/50 66.67 ± 4.54/68.32 ± 6.05 ASMI by BIA, M: ≤32.5%, F: ≤25.7% (Chung) Thera-band UL: seated chest press, seated row seated shoulder press; LL: knee extension, knee flexion, hip flexion, hip extension. 3 sets/10 reps; Intensity: Borg RPE 13 3(12) Non-exercise SMI, AMI; KES; GS, TUG, CS
7 Shao et al. (2020) [46] 41/30 45/26 69.33 ± 13.47/68.54 ± 10.62 ASMI by BIA, M: < 7 kg/m2, F: < 5.7 kg/m2; HGS, M: < 26 kg; F: < 18 kg; GS < 0.8 m/s (AWGS) Weight machine knee extension/flexion, chest press, shoulder press, and low back muscle 30 min/time 2(24) Education (4 weeks/time) SMI; HGS; GS
8 Vikberg et al. (2019) [47] 36/34 32/38 70.9 ± 0.28 /70.0 ± 0.29 ALMI by DXA, M:
≤7.29 kg/m2; F:
≤5.53 kg/m2 (EWGSOP-2010)
Body weight and suspension bands Squats, Calf Raises, Chair Stands, Half Lunges, Biceps Rowing, Push-ups, and Bridge W1:
2 sets/12 reps; W2–4:
3 sets/10 reps; W5–7:
4 sets/10 reps; W8–10:
4 sets/10 reps. Intensity: Borg RPE 10
3(10) Non-exercise ALMI; HGS; TUG, CS, SPPB, 4MWT
  1. RT resistance training, ETG exercise training group, CG control group, UL upper limb, LL lower limb, M male, F female, reps repetitions, 1RM one repetition maximum, FNT maximum theoretical force, RPE rated perceived exertion, W week, DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA Bioelectrical impedance analysis, MMI muscle mass index (MMI = muscle mass/height2[MMI/m2]), SMM skeletal muscle mass, SMI skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/ height2 [SMI/m2]), AMI appendicular muscle mass index (AMI = appendicular muscle mass/height2 [AMM/m2]), ASMI appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI = appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 [ASM/m2]), ALMI appendicular lean muscle mass index (ALMI = appendicular lean muscle mass/ height2 [ALM/m2]), AWGS Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, EWGSOP European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, HGS hand grip strength, KES knee extension strength, GS gait speed, TUG Timed Up and Go, CS Chair stand, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, 4MWT 4-m walk test