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Table 2 Results of the GEE analysis of handgrip strength change in two groups and Mini-Mental State Examination scores

From: Association between change in handgrip strength and cognitive function in Korean adults: a longitudinal panel study

  Men Women
β 95%CI β 95%CI
Changes in Handgrip strength
  Same or Increased Ref.   Ref.  
  Decreased −0.3142 (− 0.4129 -0.2154) − 0.2685 (− 0.3732 -0.1637)
Age
  45–54 Ref.   Ref.  
  55–64 − 0.1218 (− 0.2560 0.0124) − 0.1374 (− 0.2760 0.0012)
  65–74 − 0.5936 (− 0.7915 -0.3957) −1.2507 (− 1.4799 -1.0214)
  ≥75 − 1.6447 (− 1.9444 -1.3449) −3.4250 (−3.7685 -3.0814)
Education level
  Elementary school or less −2.2240 (−2.4879 -1.9601) −2.9756 (−3.2934 -2.6577)
  Middle school − 0.8777 (− 1.1216 -0.6337) −1.0498 (− 1.3567 -0.7428)
  High school −0.5350 (− 0.7142 -0.3557) −0.5839 (− 0.8543 -0.3136)
  University or beyond Ref.   Ref.  
Region
  Metropolitan Ref.   Ref.  
  Small or Medium Cities −0.3659 (− 0.5544 -0.1774) −0.5500 (− 0.7737 -0.3262)
  Rural −0.3564 (− 0.5755 -0.1373) −0.8134 (− 1.0690 -0.5578)
Working status
  Working Ref.   Ref.  
  Non-working − 0.4528 (− 0.6053 -0.3003) −0.4327 (− 0.5817 -0.2836)
Household income
  Quartile 1 (low) −0.5991 (− 0.8564 -0.3417) −0.3133 (− 0.5657 -0.0609)
  Quartile 2 −0.0653 (− 0.2554 0.1249) 0.0357 (−0.1743 0.2458)
  Quartile 3 −0.0110 (− 0.1703 0.1484) −0.0498 (− 0.2293 0.1296)
  Quartile 4 (high) Ref.   Ref.  
Participation in social activities
  No −0.9662 (− 1.1680 -0.7644) −1.2188 (− 1.4130 -1.0247)
  Yes Ref.   Ref.  
Smoking
  Current 0.2185 (−0.1002 0.3107) 0.2520 (− 0.3558 1.0495)
  Former 0.1053 (0.0150 0.4221) 0.3468 (−0.3385 0.8425)
  Never Ref.   Ref.  
Alcohol Intake
  Yes 0.0944 (− 0.0633 0.2521) 0.3999 (0.2034 0.5964)
  No Ref.   Ref.  
Number of chronic medical conditions
  None Ref.   Ref.  
  1 −0.0207 (− 0.1878 0.1464) 0.0023 (−0.1920 0.1966)
  ≥2 − 0.1014 (−0.3174 0.1145) −0.2783 (− 0.5405 -0.0161)
Number of cohabiting generations
  Couple 0.4467 (0.1589 0.7346) 0.7265 (0.4234 1.0296)
  Two generation 0.3116 (0.0398 0.5835) 0.4248 (0.1206 0.7291)
  Over two generation Ref.   Ref.  
BMI
  Underweight 0.2462 (−0.2392 0.7316) −0.3675 (− 0.8535 0.1185)
  Normal weight Ref.   Ref.  
  Overweight 0.1452 (−0.0042 0.2945) 0.3958 (0.2294 0.5622)
  Obesity 0.1092 (−0.0672 0.2856) 0.5409 (0.3336 0.7483)
  Severe obesity 0.2504 (−0.4315 0.9323) −0.2268 (− 0.7595 0.3060)
Perceived health status
  Healthy Ref.   Ref.  
  Average −0.2811 (− 0.4087 -0.1536) −0.3218 (− 0.4640 -0.1796)
  Unhealthy −1.2703 (− 1.5197 -1.0208) −1.1481 (− 1.3674 -0.9288)
  1. BMI body mass index, Underweight: BMI < 18.5, Normal weight: 18.5 ≤ BMI < 23, Overweight: 23 ≤ BMI < 25, Obesity: 25 ≤ BMI < 30, Severe obesity: 30 ≤ BMI