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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included and excluded participants

From: Social isolation, social support and loneliness as predictors of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality

   Included
( n = 11,486)
Excluded
(n = 1,398)
p–value
   n % n %
Age, years      
  mean±SD 75.03±4.22 76.80±4.82 <0.001
  70 < 75 6,944 60 % 602 43 % <0.001
  75 < 80 2,950 26 % 435 31 %
  ≥ 80 1,592 14 % 361 26 %
Gender      
  Female 6,126 53 % 880 63 % <0.001
  Male 5,360 47 % 518 37 %
Social Isolation     
  No 11,262 98 % n < 5 in a cell 0.6
  Isolated 224 2 %
Social Support     
  High 11,258 98 % 1,067 98 % 0.6
  Low 228 2 % 19 2 %
Loneliness      
  No 10,927 95 % 1,313 94 % 0.1
  Lonely 559 5 % 82 6 %
Composite Social Health a     
  Positive 10,576 92 % n < 5 in a cell 0.3
  Poor 910 8 %
Ethnicity      
  White/Caucasian 11,345 99 % 1,372 98 % 0.09
  Not 136 1 % 24 2 %
Education      
  ≤12 years 6,701 58 % 915 65 % <0.001
  >12 years 4,785 42 % 483 35 %
Region      
  Major city 6,112 53 % 719 52 % 0.2
  Inner regional 4,060 35 % 496 36 %
  Outer regional/remote 1,289 11 % 176 13 %
Smoking Status     
  Current 328 3 % 30 2 % 0.1
  Former 4,754 41 % 553 40 %
  Never 6,404 56 % 815 58 %
Number of CVD risk factors b     
  mean±SD 2.00±1.03 2.03±1.00 0.3
  0–1 3,713 32 % 448 32 % 0.2
  2 3,399 30 % 388 28 %
  3–5 4,361 38 % 560 40 %
  1. a The social health composite categories were defined as positive (not isolated, supported, and not lonely), or poor (isolated, not supported and/or lonely)
  2. b Number of five CVD risk factors (current tobacco smoking, hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, dyslipidemia, diabetes)