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Table 2 Selected biomarkers for the study

From: Study protocol: understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying delirium in older people undergoing hip fracture surgery

Biomarkers Blood (plasma) Blood (PBMCs) Cerebrospinal fluid Muscle
Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-8 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-1β [S1, S2, S3]
TNF-α [S1, S2, S3]
IFNγ [S1, S2, S3]
IL-6 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-8 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-1β [S1, S2, S3]
TNF-α [S1, S2, S3]
IFNγ [S1, S2, S3]
IL-6 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-8 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-1β [S1, S2, S3]
TNF-α [S1, S2, S3]
IFNγ [S1, S2, S3]
IL-6 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-8 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-1β [S1, S2, S3]
TNF-α [S1, S2, S3]
IFNγ [S1, S2, S3]
Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-37 [S4]
TGF-β [S3]
IL-10 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-37 [S4]
TGF-β [S3]
IL-10 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-37 [S4]
TGF-β [S3]
IL-10 [S1, S2, S3]
IL-37 [S4]
TGF-β [S3]
Muscular damage and regeneration     Atrogin-1 [S5]
MuRF-1 [S5]
Myostatin [S5]
Follistatin [S5]
Activin [S5]
Activin receptor type II [S5]
Myosin heavy chain type II [S5]
Myosin heavy chain type VII [S5]
Muscle differentiation     PAX7 [S5]
MyoD [S5]
Myogenin [S5]
MYF5 [S5]
MEF2A [S5]
Endothelial damage CD-31 [S6]
S-100β [S3, S7]
Von Willebrand factor [S6]
CD-31 [S6]
S-100β [S3, S7]
Von Willebrand factor [S6]
CD-31 [S6]
S-100β [S3, S7]
Von Willebrand factor [S6]
 
Transport proteins Albumin [S1, S2] Albumin [S1, S2] Albumin [S1, S2]  
Immune system activation Neopterin [S8] Neopterin [S8] Neopterin [S8]  
Neurodegeneration Neurofilament light chain [S9] Neurofilament light chain [S9] Neurofilament light chain [S9]  
Stress response Cortisol [S10, S11]   Cortisol [S10, S11]  
  1. Biomarkers coming from fluids (plasma and CSF) will be measured by protein quantification assays, while biomarkers coming from cells (PBMCs and myocytes) will be measured by mRNA expression analysis