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Table 4 Relationship between bone density and clinical characteristics or physical performance

From: The relationship between bone density and the oral function in older adults: a cross-sectional observational study

All (754) Osteoporosis (n = 260) Decreased bone mass (n = 287) Normal (n = 207) Two-group comparison
Age (years) * 74 (69.3, 78.8) 72 (68,78) 71 (67,75) a,b,c
BMI (kg/m2) * 21.9 (20.3, 24.1) 22.7 (20.7,24.3) 23.1 (21.4,25.4) a, b
SMI (kg/m2)* 6.07 (5.68,6.71) 6.32 (5.79,7.01) 6.9 (6.06,7.65) a,b
Walking speed (m/sec) 1.48 (1.28,1.6) 1.45 (1.3,1.63) 1.47 (1.35,1.6) N.S.
Knee extension force (N) * 313 (253, 384) 329.5 (275.5398.1) 391.6 (315.8499) a,b
One-leg standing (sec) * 24.1 (8.9, 52) 26 (10.5,60) 40 (18.6,60) a,b
Male (276) Osteoporosis (n = 65) Decreased bone mass (n = 95) Normal (n = 116)  
Age (years) * 76 (71,82) 72 (68,78) 72 (68.3,75) b
BMI* (kg/m2)* 22.6 (20.1,24.8) 22.7 (20.7,24.3) 23.4 (21.7,25.8) b
SMI (kg/m2)* 7.25 (6.63,7.55) 6.32 (5.79,7.01) 7.57 (7.06,8.11) a,b
Walking speed (m/sec) 1.46 (1.21,1.61) 1.45 (1.3,1.63) 1.47 (1.35,1.59) N.S.
Knee extension force (N) * 445.7 (337,512) 329.5 (275.5398.1) 486.4 (388.3544) a,b
One-leg standing (sec) * 15.6 (7,34.2) 26 (10.5,60) 48.8 (19,60) b
Female (478) Osteoporosis (n = 195) Decreased bone mass (n = 192) Normal (n = 91)  
Age (years) * 74 (69,78) 72 (67,76.8) 69 (67,75) b
BMI (kg/m2) 21.7 (20.3,24) 22.2 (20.5,24.3) 23 (20.9,24.6) N.S.
SMI (kg/m2) 5.88 (5.56,6.32) 5.97 (5.54,6.4) 5.99 (5.7,6.45) N.S.
Walking speed (m/sec) 1.48 (1.3,1.59) 1.45 (1.3,1.63) 1.49 (1.36,1.61) N.S.
Knee extension force (N) * 291 (236.3360.8) 300 (246.3352) 320.6 (272,379) b
One-leg standing (sec) 28.1 (10.6,56.3) 25 (10.6,60) 34.7 (15.6,60) N.S.
  1. *: Significant difference in Kruskal-Wallis Test. a: Statistically significant difference between normal group and decreased bone mass group, b: Statistically significant difference between normal group and osteoporosis group, c: Statistically significant difference between the decreased bone mass group and the osteoporosis group. N.S.: No significant differences in all comparisons
  2. Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparison (Mann-Whitney’s U-test, with corrections to the P-values using the Bonferroni method)