Skip to main content

Table 3 Relationship between bone density and oral function

From: The relationship between bone density and the oral function in older adults: a cross-sectional observational study

All (754) Osteoporosis (n = 260) Decreased bone mass (n = 287) Normal (n = 207) Two-group comparison
Remaining teeth (num) 22 (14, 26) 24 (14, 27) 23 (16, 26) N.S.
Occlusal force (kgf)* 40 (21.9, 73.4) 53.1 (25, 85.4) 60.3 (33.8, 91.6) a,b
Occlusal balance (%) 21.8 (9.3, 40.3) 17.4 (7.9, 36.6) 20.1 (8.1, 35.8) N.S.
Masticatory performance (score) * 4 (1, 6) 5 (2, 6) 5 (3, 6) b
Tongue pressure (kPa) * 32.8 (26.6, 37.8) 34.3 (28.8, 39.1) 34.6 (30, 39.5) b
Occlusal support 
Group A 97 (30.2) 136(42.4) 88(27.4) N.S.
Group B 107(35.8) 104(34.8) 88(29.4)  
Group C 56(41.8) 47(35.1) 31(23.1)  
Male (276) Osteoporosis (n = 65) Decreased bone mass (n = 95) Normal (n = 116) Two-group comparison
Remaining teeth (num) 23 (11, 27) 23 (12, 27) 23 (16.3, 27) N.S.
Occlusal force (kgf) * 42.5 (22.4, 87.9) 53.1 (26.4, 94.3) 66.1 (41.8, 103.6) a,b
Occlusal balance (%) 21 (8.8, 39) 19.6 (9.4, 39.7) 21.7 (7, 37.1) N.S.
Masticatory performance (score) * 4 (2, 6) 5 (1, 6) 5 (4, 6) a
Tongue pressure (kPa) 33.1 (27.1, 38.6) 33.8 (28.8, 39.9) 34.5 (30.7, 40) N.S.
Occlusal support
Group A 25(21.9) 38(33.3) 51(44.7) N.S.
Group B 20(19.2) 38(36.5) 46(44.2)  
Group C 20(34.5) 19(32.8) 19(32.8)  
Female (478) Osteoporosis (n = 195) Decreased bone mass (n = 192) Normal (n = 91) Two-group comparison
Remaining teeth (num) 22 (15, 26) 24 (17, 27) 23 (16, 26) N.S.
Occlusal force (kgf) 39.8 (21.8, 72.2) 53.5 (24.9, 84.6) 48 (26.6, 78) N.S.
Occlusal balance (%) 21.9 (9.9, 40.5) 17.1 (7.5, 36.2) 17.1 (8.7, 34.3) N.S.
Masticatory performance (score) 4 (1, 5) 5 (2, 6) 5 (2, 6) N.S.
Tongue pressure (kPa) * 32.6 (26.3, 37.5) 34.4 (28.9, 38.9) 35.3 (30, 39) b
Occlusal support**
Group A 72(34.9) 98(47.3) 37(17.9) c
Group B 87(44.6) 66(33.8) 42(21.5)  
Group C 36(47.4) 28(36.8) 12(16.8)  
  1. median (first quartile, third quartile) or number of people (%)
  2. *: Significant difference in Kruskal-Wallis Test. **: Significant difference by χ2-test
  3. Two-group comparison: The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups, and the P value was corrected by the Bonferroni method. a: Statistically significant difference between normal group and decreased bone mass group. b: Statistically significant difference between normal group and osteoporosis group. c: Statistically significant difference between the osteoporosis group and the decreased bone mass group. N.S.: No significant difference in all comparisons