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Table 1 Summary of subjects

From: The relationship between bone density and the oral function in older adults: a cross-sectional observational study

Measurement variables Overall
(n = 754)
Male
(n = 276)
Female
(n = 478)
P-value
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 72 (68, 77) 73 (69, 77) 72 (68, 77) 0.08
 BMI (kg/m2)* 22.7 (20.8, 24.4) 23 (21.3, 24.9) 22.2 (20.5, 24.3) < 0.001
 SMI (kg/m2)* 6.4 (5.8, 7.2) 7.4 (6.9, 7.8) 6 (5.6, 6.4) < 0.001
Bone density statue
 SOS (m/s) * 1488 (1474, 1504) 1496 (1483, 1515.3) 1484 (1470.8, 1497.3) < 0.001
 YAM (%)* 74 (68, 82) 77 (71, 87.8) 72 (66, 78) < 0.001
 Osteoporosis 260 (34.5) 65 (23.6) 195 (40.8) < 0.001
 Decreased bone mass 287(38.1) 95 (34.4) 192 (40.2)  
 Normal 207 (27.5) 116 (42) 91 (19)  
Physical performance
 Walking speed (m/sec) 1.5 (1.3, 1.6) 1.4 (1.3, 1.6) 1.5 (1.3, 1.6) 0.57
 Knee extension force (N)* 339.2(277, 427.4) 457 (362, 523.5) 301 (248.8, 357.9) P < 0.001
 One-leg standing (sec) 30 (11, 60) 31.6 (10.7, 60) 29.3 (11, 60) 0.31
Oral function examinations
 Remaining teeth (0–32) 23 (15, 27) 23 (13, 27) 23 (16, 27) 0.78
 Occlusal force (kgf)* 50.8 (26.1, 83.8) 58.3 (29.7, 95.9) 47.8 (24.3, 77.8) 0.002
 Occlusal balance (%) 19.5 (8.4, 38) 20.4 (8.5, 38.1) 18.6 (8.3, 37.9) 0.25
 Masticatory function (score) 5 (2, 6) 5 (2, 6) 4 (2, 6) 0.17
 Tongue pressure (kPa) 33.9 (28.2, 38.8) 34 (28.8, 39.7) 33.8 (27.6, 38.6) 0.11
Occlusal support
 Group A 364 (42.7) 116 (41.3) 248 (43.4) 0.8
 Group B 338 (39.6) 106 (37.7) 232 (40.6)  
 Group C 151 (17.7) 59 (21) 92 (16.1)  
  1. Data show Median (first quartile, third quartile) or the number of people (%)
  2. BMI: body mass index, SMI: Skeletal Muscle Mass Index
  3. SOS: Ultrasonic propagation velocity in the fibular tarsal bone. YAM: Value compared with the SOS of younger individuals
  4. Occlusal support: Eichner classification. Group A have contact in four occlusal contact regions, Group B have in three to one occlusal contact regions or anterior region only, and Group C have no occlusal contact regions at all
  5. P-value: Comparison between males and females. Mann-Whitney’ s U-test or χ2 test.*: There is a significant difference between males and females