Skip to main content

Table 2 Single Predictor Logistic Regressions of Patient Characteristics to Predict Hospital Mortality (N = 4783)(Expired versus Discharged Alive)

From: Geriatrics-focused indicators predict mortality more than age in older adults hospitalized with COVID-19

Patient Characteristics Expired
M (SD) or n (%)
Discharged Alive
M (SD) or n (%)
OR (95% CI) P-value
Age 79.20 (8.48) 76.31 (8.20) 1.04 (1.03, 1.05)a < 0.001*
Sex
 Male 1045 (39.09%) 1628 (60.91%) 1.31 (1.17, 1.48) < 0.001*
 Female 693 (32.84%) 1417 (67.16%) 1 (ref)  
Race
 Black 304 (31.31%) 667 (68.69%) 0.73 (0.63, 0.86) < 0.001*
 Asian 164 (42.27%) 224 (57.73%) 1.18 (0.95, 1.47) 0.142
 White 869 (38.33%) 1398 (61.67%) 1 (ref)
 Other 336 (34.60%) 635 (65.40%) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99) 0.04*
 Not available 65 (34.95%) 121 (65.05%) 0.86 (0.63, 1.18) 0.361
Ethnicity
 Hispanic or Latino 242 (33.80%) 474 (66.20%) 0.87 (0.74, 1.03) 0.12
 Not Hispanic or Latino 1403 (36.87%) 2402 (63.13%) 1 (ref)  
Insurance
 Medicaid or Uninsured 108 (35.06%) 200 (64.94%) 0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 0.63
 Medicare or Private 1630 (36.35%) 2854 (63.65%) 1 (ref)  
Comorbidities
 Diabetes Mellitus
  Yes 662 (37.85%) 1087 (62.15%) 1.11 (0.98, 1.25) 0.10
  No 1076 (35.46%) 1958 (64.54%) 1 (ref)  
 Hypertension
  Yes 1008 (58.00%) 730 (42.00%) 0.814 (0.72, 0.92) < 0.001*
  No 1916 (62.92%) 1129 (37.08%) 1 (ref)  
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  Yes 179 (43.13%) 236 (56.87%) 1.37 (1.12, 1.68) 0.003*
  No 1559 (35.69%) 2809 (64.31%) 1 (ref)  
 Intertitial Lung Disease
  Yes 216 (67.29%) 105 (32.71%) 3.97 (3.12, 5.06) < 0.001*
  No 1522 (34.11%) 2940 (65.89%) 1 (ref)  
 Asthma
  Yes 81 (33.89%) 158 (66.11%) 0.89 (0.68, 1.18) 0.420
  No 1657 (36.47%) 2887 (63.53%) 1 (ref)  
 Cancer
  Yes 176 (41.31%) 250 (58.69%) 1.26 (1.03, 1.54) .03*
  No 1562 (35.85%) 2795 (64.15%) 1 (ref)  
 Coronary Artery Disease
  Yes 124 (47.51%) 137 (52.49%) 1.63 (1.27, 2.10) < 0.001*
  No 1614 (35.69%) 2908 (64.31%) 1 (ref)  
 Atrial Fibrillation
  Yes 321 (45.02%) 392 (54.98%) 1.53 (1.31, 1.80) < 0.001*
  No 1417 (34.82%) 2653 (65.18%) 1 (ref)  
 Chronic Kidney Disease
  Yes 356 (45.24%) 431 (54.76%) 1.56 (1.34, 1.82) < 0.001*
  No 1382 (34.58%) 2614 (65.42%) 1 (ref)  
 Dementia
  Yes 290 (46.10%) 339 (53.90%) 1.60 (1.35, 1.89) < 0.001*
   No 1448 (34.86%) 2706 (65.14%) 1 (ref)  
BMI
 Underweight BMI below 18.5 46 (44.23%) 58 (55.77%) 1.44 (0.96, 2.16) 0.080
 Normal 18.5 to 24.9 361 (35.53%) 655 (64.47%) 1 (ref)  
 Overweight, 25 to 29.9 421 (33.90%) 821 (66.10%) 0.93 (0.78, 1.11) 0.417
 Obese, 30 or above 323 (32.86%) 660 (67.14%) 0.89 (0.74, 1.07) 0.208
Comorbidity Index (CCI-age, continuous)b 3.85 (2.97) 3.18 (2.76) 1.08 (1.06, 1.11) < 0.001*
Residence Prior to Admission
 Facility 495 (48.82%) 519 (51.18%) 1.94 (1.68, 2.23) < 0.001*
 Home 1243 (32.98%) 2526 (67.02%) 1 (ref)  
Advanced Directives
 Early DNRc
  Yes 181 (64.87%) 98 (35.13%) 3.50 (2.71, 4.50) < 0.001*
  No 1557 (34.57%) 2947 (65.43%) 1 (ref)  
Severity of Illness on Presentation
 MEWS d
  Severely-ill 993 (68.15%) 464 (31.85%) 6.79 (5.90, 7.80) < 0.001*
  Not severely-ill 684 (23.97%) 2169 (76.03%) 1 (ref)  
First documented oxygen
 Nasal cannulae 1140 (36.39%) 1993 (63.61%) 2.58 (2.16, 3.08) < 0.001*
 Nonrebreatherf 254 (56.07%) 199 (43.93%) 5.75 (4.49, 7.36) < 0.001*
 Mechanical ventilation 166 (76.50%) 51 (23.50%) 14.67 (10.30, 20.88) < 0.001*
 Room air 178 (18.16%) 802 (81.84%) 1 (ref)
  1. a Odds of death expected to increase 4% with one- year increase in age
  2. b CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index
  3. c DNR Do Not Resuscitate
  4. d MEWS Modified Early Warning Score
  5. e Nasal cannula includes ventimask
  6. f Nonrebreather includes high flow and non-invasive ventilation
  7. * p ≤ 0.05