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Table 4 Associations between reasons of discrimination and selected health outcomes

From: Perceived discrimination and health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in India: results of a national survey in 2017–2018

Outcome variables Attribution of discrimination Model 1: adjusted odds ratio or IRR (95% CI)a Model 2: adjusted odds ratio or IRR (95% CI)b
Mental health
 Low life satisfaction No discrimination 1 Reference 1 Reference
Age 1.30 (1.09, 1.55)** 1.25 (1.06, 1.47)**
Financial 2.66 (2.31, 3.06)*** 2.33 (2.00, 2.72)***
Caste 1.43 (1.12, 1.85)** 1.12 (0.85, 1.48)
Gender 1.06 (0.71, 1.60) 0.94 (0.55, 1.63)
 Depressive symptoms No discrimination 1 Reference 1 Reference
Age 1.91 (1.70, 2.15)*** 1.72 (1.50, 1.96)***
Financial 2.45 (2.17, 2.76)*** 2.07 (1.81, 2.36)***
Caste 1.59 (1.22, 2.07)*** 1.76 (1.43, 2.17)***
Gender 1.36 (0.90, 2.05) 1.14 (0.67, 1.94)
Physical health
 Number of pain conditions No discrimination Reference Reference
Age 1.12 (1.05, 1.18)*** 1.08 (1.02, 1.14)**
Financial 1.23 (1.16, 1.31)*** 1.15 (1.08, 1.23)***
Caste 1.13 (1.01, 1.27)* 0.98 (0.91, 1.06)
Gender 1.03 (0.91, 1.16) 1.02 (0.93, 1.12)
 Functional limitationsc No discrimination 1 Reference 1 Reference
Age 1.39 (1.20, 1.61)*** 1.23 (1.07, 1.43)**
Financial 1.36 (1.20, 1.55)*** 1.21 (1.06, 1.39)**
Caste 1.12 (1.02, 1.23)* 1.15 (1.04, 1.28)**
Gender 1.31 (0.74, 2.32) 1.21 (1.06, 1.39)
Health risk behaviour
 Physical inactivity No discrimination 1 Reference 1 Reference
Age 1.54 (1.33, 1.77)*** 1.47 (1.27, 1.69)***
Financial 0.69 (0.60, 0.80)*** 0.68 (0.59, 0.76)***
Caste 0.98 (0.80, 1.18) 0.91 (0.79, 1.03)
Gender 0.67 (0.43, 1.05) 0.68 (0.44, 1.07)
  1. CI Confidence Interval; ***p < 0.001;**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; aAdjusted for age group, and sex, bAdjusted for age group, sex, education, marital status, subjective socioeconomic status, area of residence, caste/tribe, social participation, organised religiosity, and all health variables; cDifficulties with two or more Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), IRR Incident Risk Ratio