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Table 1 Sample characteristics among middle-aged and older adults in India, 2017–2018 (N = 72,262)

From: Perceived discrimination and health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in India: results of a national survey in 2017–2018

Variable Variable specification Sample Discrimination Attribution of discrimination
% or M (SD) ≥1 vs 0) Age Financial Other
Social and demographic factors
 Age in years 45–59 54.1 17.0 6.3 7.7 7.6
60 or more 45.9 17.6 10.8 6.4 6.4
 Sex Female 58.0 17.0 8.2 7.2 6.9
Male 42.0 17.7 8.5 7.0 7.3
 Education ≥1 years schooling 50.5 15.1 6.5 5.8 6.4
No schooling 49.5 19.5 10.2 8.5 7.7
 Subjective socioeconomic status Low 37.2 21.6 10.3 10.4 8.8
Medium 38.7 15.8 7.0 6.2 6.5
High 24.1 13.1 7.3 3.6 5.1
 Marital status Not married 24.4 18.9 11.4 7.7 6.4
Married 75.6 16.8 7.3 6.9 7.2
 Caste/tribe None of the below 24.9 14.0 7.3 5.2 5.4
Scheduled caste 8.8 19.3 8.8 9.2 8.4
Scheduled tribe 19.7 16.5 8.3 5.9 7.0
Other backward class 46.7 18.8 8.9 7.6 7.5
 Residence Rural 68.2 18.1 8.8 7.8 7.0
Urban 31.8 15.6 7.2 5.6 7.0
 Organised religiosity (Attendance of religious services) Not at all 25.5 15.4 7.8 5.5 6.9
1–3 times/month or ≥ 1 times/year 46.9 17.2 8.3 7.6 6.9
≥1/week or every day 27.6 19.1 8.9 7.8 7.4
 Social participation Yes 54.4 19.4 9.1 7.9 8.3
Mental health
 Life satisfaction Low 11.1 29.6 13.6 15.7 12.3
 Cognitive functioning Scale (0–32): M (SD) 18.7 (5.1) 17.8 (5.2) 12.3 (5.3) 17.6 (5.1) 17.8 (5.2)
 Insomnia symptoms Yes 12.7 26.4 13.8 11.3 9.5
 Depressive symptoms Yes 27.6 28.9 14.3 13.3 11.8
Physical health
Any pain conditions 1 or more 65.7 19.3 9.5 8.1 7.9
  Back pain or problem Yes 31.5 20.8 10.0 9.1 8.1
  Persistent headaches Yes 12.8 21.9 9.5 11.1 8.6
  Painful teeth Yes 28.4 21.5 10.4 8.7 9.7
  Pain or stiffness of joints Yes 46.1 20.2 10.2 8.6 8.2
Any cardiovascular conditions 1 or more 46.6 16.7 8.5 6.8 6.8
  Hypertension Yes 40.4 16.0 8.4 6.3 6.5
  Angina Yes 8.6 19.9 8.6 9.7 7.5
  Heart disease Yes 8.6 14.2 7.6 5.8 5.2
  Stoke Yes 1.8 22.7 13.5 6.7 12.8
Chronic lung disease Yes 6.3 19.7 11.5 8.3 7.3
Functional limitationsa 2 or more 28.8 22.1 11.6 8.6 9.3
Health risk behaviour
 Current tobacco smoking Yes 30.4 19.1 9.6 8.3 7.0
 Heavy episodic drinking Yes 2.9 24.8 13.4 10.2 11.5
 Physical inactivity Yes 23.7 20.1 11.2 5.7 7.5
  1. aDifficulties with two or more Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)