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Table 3 Distribution of Baseline Characteristics by Anxiety Trajectory Groups (n, %)

From: Latent class growth modeling of depression and anxiety in older adults: an 8-year follow-up of a population-based study

  Trajectory groups P-value
Low-flat
N = 3785
Low-to-middle
N = 96
High-to-low
N = 89
High-curved
N = 13
 
Sex
Male 1664 (44.0) 26 (27.1) 20 (22.5) 4 (30.8) < 0.0001
Female 2121 (56.0) 70 (72.9) 69 (77.5) 9 (69.2)  
Age, years
65–69 1454 (38.4) 39 (40.6) 37 (41.6) 4 (30.8) 0.995
70–74 1156 (30.5) 29 (30.2) 26 (29.2) 4 (30.8)  
75–79 702 (18.6) 19 (19.8) 16 (18.0) 3 (23.1)  
  ≥ 80 473 (12.5) 9 (9.4) 10 (11.2) 2 (15.4)  
Marital status
Married 2475 (65.4) 59 (61.5) 49 (55.1) 9 (69.2) 0.190
Single/divorced/widowed 1309 (34.6) 37 (38.5) 40 (44.9) 4 (30.8)  
Education
None 753 (19.9) 20 (20.8) 24 (27.0) 2 (15.4) 0.194
Elementary 1611 (42.6) 50 (52.1) 35 (39.3) 9 (69.2)  
Middle/High 1133 (29.9) 22 (22.9) 25 (28.1) 1 (7.7)  
University 288 (7.6) 4 (4.2) 5 (5.6) 1 (7.7)  
Smoking
No 2083 (59.4) 65 (68.4) 62 (72.1) 8 (61.5) 0.042
Previous 451 (12.9) 6 (6.3) 10 (11.6) 0 (0)  
Current 974 (27.8) 24 (25.3) 14 (16.3) 5 (38.5)  
Drinking
No 1408 (40.1) 37 (39.0) 44 (51.2) 6 (46.2) 0.433
Less than twice per week 1554 (44.3) 45 (47.4) 35 (40.7) 6 (46.2)  
2–3 times per week 269 (7.7) 4 (4.2) 4 (4.7) 1 (7.7)  
Almost daily 279 (8.0) 9 (9.5) 3 (3.5) 0 (0.0)  
Residential area
Metro-city 1392 (38.2) 14 (42.4) 75 (36.6) 39 (37.5) 0.920
Not Metro-city 2249 (61.8) 19 (57.6) 130 (63.4) 65 (62.5)  
Housing type
Detached House 2173 (57.4) 59 (61.5) 47 (52.8) 7 (53.9) 0.811
Apartment 528 (14.0) 11 (11.5) 16 (18.0) 1 (7.7)  
Others 1084 (28.6) 26 (27.1) 26 (29.2) 5 (38.5)  
Disability
No 3034 (80.2) 79 (82.3) 65 (73.0) 13 (100.0) 0.097
Yes 751 (19.8) 17 (17.7) 24 (27.0) 0 (0.0)  
Home ownership
Own 2898 (76.6) 78 (81.2) 59 (66.3) 7 (53.9) 0.019
Lease 887 (23.4) 18 (18.8) 30 (33.7) 6 (46.2)  
Living arrangement
Alone 61 (1.6) 1 (1.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.631
Couple only 2336 (61.7) 67 (69.8) 55 (61.8) 8 (61.5)  
Others 1388 (36.7) 28 (29.2) 34 (38.2) 5 (38.5)  
Walking
None 650 (18.5) 15 (15.8) 22 (25.6) 3 (23.1) 0.562
  ≤ 3 days/week 453 (12.9) 11 (11.6) 7 (8.1) 2 (15.4)  
  > 3 days/week 2407 (68.6) 69 (72.6) 57 (66.3) 8 (61.5)  
Medium/Intensive
Physical activity
  None 2349 (66.9) 59 (62.1) 63 (73.3) 11 (84.6) 0.493
   ≤ 3 days/week 340 (9.7) 9 (27) 8 (9.3) 0 (0.0)  
   > 3 days/week 821 (23.4) 27 (28.4) 15 (17.4) 2 (15.4)  
More than 3 chronic diseases a
Yes 3319 (87.7) 88 (91.7) 87 (97.7) 0 (0.0) 0.001
No 466 (12.3) 8 (8.3) 2 (2.3) 13 (100.0)  
Economic Activity
No 2382 (62.9) 61 (63.5) 70 (78.7) 9 (69.2) 0.024
Yes 1403 (37.1) 35 (36.5) 19 (21.4) 4 (30.8)  
Income quantile, percentile
  < 20th 1224 (44.4) 44 (51.2) 31 (44.9) 31 (44.9) 0.410
20 – 40th 628 (22.8) 19 (22.1) 18 (26.1) 18 (26.1)  
40 – 60th 446 (16.2) 11 (12.8) 13 (18.8) 13 (18.8)  
60 – 80th 246 (8.9) 9 (10.5) 5 (7.3) 5 (7.3)  
80 – 100th 210 (7.6) 3 (3.5) 2 (2.9) 2 (2.9)  
  1. aChronic diseases = hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, back pain, cataracts, osteoporosis, and arthritis, loss of hearing or vision