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Table 2 Subgroup analysis: effects by type of nutritional interventions on muscle mass, muscle Strength, and physical functional performance

From: Does the combination of resistance training and a nutritional intervention have a synergic effect on muscle mass, strength, and physical function in older adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups Lean body mass Appendicular skeletal muscle mass
n MD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences n MD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences
Creatine 4 2.61 0.51 ~ 4.72 9% χ2 = 7.28 (p = .03) χ2 = 0.62 (p = .43)
Multi-nutrients 2 0.94 −1.94 ~ 3.82 36% 2 0.39 −0.68 ~ 1.45 0%
Protein 4 −0.21 − 0.57 ~ 0.14 0% 2 −0.20 −1.23 ~ 0.82 47%
Subgroups Hand grip strength Knee extension strength
n SMD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences n SMD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences
Creatine χ2 = 0.12 (p = .73) 2 0.74 0.09 ~ 1.38 7% χ2 = 4.89 (p = .09)
Multi-nutrients 2 −0.04 −0.48 ~ 0.40 21% 2 0.05 −0.36 ~ 0.46 12%
Protein 3 0.05 −0.21 ~ 0.31 0% 6 −0.02 −0.20 ~ 0.17 0%
Subgroups Chair stand test Timed up and go test
n MD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences n MD 95% CI I2 Subgroup differences
Multi-nutrients 2 0.15 −0.41 ~ 0.72 0% χ2 = 1.05 (p = .31) 2 0.26 −0.31 ~ 0.83 32% χ2 = 1.02 (p = .31)
Protein 3 −0.21 −0.60 ~ 0.19 0%   2 −0.06 −0.28 ~ 0.17 0%