Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of included study characteristics

From: Does the combination of resistance training and a nutritional intervention have a synergic effect on muscle mass, strength, and physical function in older adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (year), study location Sample characteristics: n, mean age ± SD, sex (female ratio) Intervention group Control groupa Follow-up period (weeks)b Body composition assessment method Muscle strength assessment method Physical performance assessment method
Exercise Nutrition
Aguiar (2013) [28], Brazil Ic: 9, 64 ± 4, female
Cd: 9, 65 ± 6, female
Resistance training using machines, 60 min sessions, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks 5 g Creatine monohydrate, once a day, for 12 weeks Placebo: maltodextrin 24 Body mass
Fat free mass
Muscle mass
Bench press
Biceps curl
Knee extension
Chair stand
Aoki (2018) [29], Japan I: 43, 68.8 ± 5.3, mixed (74.4%)
C: 45, 71.2 ± 6.8, mixed (75.6%)
Lower body resistance training, daily 25mcg vitamin D3 (1000 IUe), divided into 3 times, daily Usual diet 24 BMIf
Lower limb muscle mass
Hip flexion
Knee extension
Chair stand
Single leg stance
Two step test
Functional reach test
Arnarson (2013) [30], Iceland I: 83, 73.3 ± 6, mixed (unknown)
C: 78, 74.6 ± 5.8, mixed (unknown)
Resistance training using machines, 3 times a week 20 g of whey protein 3 times a week Placebo: 250 ml isocaloric carbohydrate drink 12 ASMMg
Lean body mass
Grip strength
Knee extension
TUGh
6-min walk
Bermon (1998) [31], France I: 8, 71.0 ± 5.4, mixed (50%)
C: 8, 69.3 ± 1.1, mixed (50%)
Resistance training using machines, 3 times a week, for 7 weeks First 5 days: 5 g creatine monohydrate and 2 g glucose, 4 times a day
Following 47 days: 3 g creatine monohydrate and 2 g glucose once a day
Placebo:
First 5 days:7 g glucose 4 times a day
Following 47 days: 5 g glucose once a day
8 Body mass
BMI
Lower limb muscle volume
Leg press
Chest press
Knee extension
Bjørnsen (2016) [32], Norway I: 17, 69 ± 7, male
C: 17, 67 ± 5, male
Free weight exercises, 3 times a week 500 mg vitamin C and 117.5 mg vitamin E, twice a day Placebo: cellulose and dicalsium phosphate 12 Lean body mass
Muscle thickness
Biceps curl
Knee extension
Leg press
Bobeuf (2011) [33], Canada I: 14, 64.3 ± 3.8, mixed (50%)
C: 17, 67 ± 3.7, mixed (52.9%)
Resistance training, 60 min sessions, 3 times a week 1000 mg vitamin C ascorbate and vitamin E, once a day Placebo: 100 mg lactose 24 ASMM
Muscle mass
Brose (2003) [34], Canada I: 14, 69.6 ± 5.4, mixed (42.8%)
C: 14, 69.1 ± 4.8, mixed (50%)
Resistance training using machines, 3 times a week 5 g creatine and 2 g dextrose, once a day Placebo:
7 g dextrose
14 Fat free mass Grip strength
Knee extension
Leg press
Chrusch (2001) [35], Canada I:16, 70.4 ± 6.4, male
C:14, 71.1 ± 6.7, male
Resistance training using machines, 3 times a week Creatine supplement: 0.3 g/kg/day for the first 5 days (loading phase) and 0.07 g/kg/day thereafter, once a day, for 11 weeks Placebo: sucrose-flour mixture 12 Lean body mass Bench press
Knee extension
Leg press
Cornish (2018) [36], Canada I:11, 71.4 ± 6.2, male
C:12, 70.9 ± 5, male
Resistance training, 60 min sessions, 3 times a week 3.0 g omega-3 fatty acid
combined 1.98 g EPAi and 0.99 g DHAj, once a day
Placebo:
3.0 g omega 3–6-9 blend
12 Body mass
Lean body mass
Chest press
Leg press
TUG
6-min walk
Da Boit (2017) [37], UK I: 27, 70.1 ± 4, mixed (48.1%)
C: 23, 70.9 ± 4.2, mixed (43.4%)
Lower body resistance training, twice a week 3.0 g omega–3 fatty acids containing 2.1 g EPA and 0.6 g DHA, once a day Placebo:
3.0 g safflower oil
18 Muscle anatomic cross-sectional area Knee extension Chair stand
SPPBk
4 m walk
Edholom (2017) [38], Sweden I: 20, 67.2 ± 1.3, female
C: 17, 67.9 ± 2.1, female
Resistance training, 60 min sessions, twice a week Healthy diet:
following a dietary consultation and a diet plan with the current dietary guidelines in Europe and US
Usual diet 24 Lean body mass Knee extension
Leg press
Chair stand
Single leg stance
Squat jump
TUG
Holwerda (2018) [39], Netherlands I: 21, 69 ± 4.6, male
C: 20, 71 ± 4.5, male
Resistance exercise training,
3 times a week
21 g leucine-enriched whey protein (3 g total leucine), once a day Placebo 12 ASMM
BMI
Body mass
Lean body mass
Knee extension
Leg press
Chair stand
SPPB
4 m walk
Kawada (2013) [40], Japan Ia: 10, 65 ± 1, mixed (50%)
Ib: 11, 67 ± 3, mixed (72.3%)
C: 8, 70 ± 1, mixed (50%)
Low-intensity resistance training, twice a week Ia: 3.0 g essential amino acid supplements with milk, twice a day
Ib: 6.0 g essential amino acid supplements with milk, twice a day
Placebo:
3 g dextrin-contained powder with milk, once a day
24 Cross sectional area of Psoas major muscle Gait speed
Obstacle course walk
6-min walk
Leenders (2013) [41], Netherlands I: 27,70.9 ± 5.4, mixed (44.4%)
C: 26, 69.5 ± 3.6, mixed (46.2%)
Resistance training, 3 times a week 15 g milk protein, once a day Placebo:
7.13 g lactose and 0.42 g calcium only
24 BMI
Lean body mass
Lower limb lean mass
Grip strength
Leg press
Chair stand
Mori (2018) [42], Japan I: 25, 70.6 ± 4.2, female
C: 25, 70.6 ± 4.2, female
Resistance training, twice a week 25 g leucine enriched whey protein, once a day Usual diet 24 BMI
Lower limb lean mass SMIl
Upper limb lean mass
Grip strength
Knee extension
Gait speed
Nabuco (2018) [43], Brazil Ia: 23, 66.2 ± 9.4, female
Ib: 24, 67.5 ± 5.2, female
C: 23, 66.5 ± 7.2, female
Resistance training, 3 times a week Ia: 27.1 g whey protein after resistance training, 3 times a week
Ib: 27.1 g whey protein before resistance training, 3 times a week
Placebo:
maltodextrin drink
12 Lower limb lean mass
Skeletal muscle mass
Upper limb lean mass
Biceps curl
Chest press
Knee extension
Chair stand
Gait speed
Nagai (2019) [44], Japan I: 17, 72.7 ± 1.4, mixed (64.7%)
C: 19, 73.5 ± 2.3, mixed (68.4%)
Latex band training, squat, and tai chi, 90 min sessions, once a week 60 mg maslinic acid, once a day Placebo:
jelly without maslinic acid
12 BMI
Body mass
Fat free mass
Skeletal muscle mass
Segmental muscle mass
Grip strength Chair stand
Gait speed
Nakayama (2020) [45], Japan I: 61, 71.4 ± 6.2, mixed (74%)
C: 61, 70.4 ± 5.5, mixed (77%)
Body weight exercises and 5 medicine ball exercises, daily Low-dose milk protein:
10.1 g protein, once a day
Placebo:
Isocaloric carbohydrate
24 Body mass
Lean body mass
Grip strength
Knee extension
Knee flexion
Push up
Chair stand
Gait speed
TUG
Nilsson (2020) [46], Canada I: 16, 77.4 ± 11.2, male
C: 16, 74.4 ± 5.2, male
Home based resistance training with elastic bands, 3 times a week Multi nutrients: 24 g whey protein, 16 g micellar casein contained 416 mg calcium, 3 g creatine, vitamin D 1000 IU, and omega-3 fish-oil containing 1.51 g EPA and 0.95 g DHA, once a day Placebo: collagen and sunflower oil 12 ASMM
Body mass BMI
Lean body mass
Grip strength Knee extension
Leg press
Chair stand
SPPB
Stair climb
TUG
4 m walk
Pinto (2016) [47], Brazil I: 13, 67.4 ± 4.7, mixed (unknown)
C: 14, 67.1 ± 6.3, mixed (unknown)
Resistance training, 3 times a week 5 g Creatine monohydrate, once a day Placebo: 5 g maltodextrin 12 Body mass
Lean body mass
SMI
Bench press
Leg press
Seino (2018) [48], Japan I: 40, 73.4 ± 4.3, mixed (85%)
C: 40, 73.7 ± 4.3, mixed (82.5%)
Weight-bearing exercise and exercises using a resistance band and Pilates ball, 60 min sessions, twice a week Fortified milk containing 10.5 g total milk protein, 3.9 g fat, 9.3 g carbohydrate, and 337 mg calcium at lunch and micronutrient beverage at breakfast, daily Usual diet 12 Body mass
Lean body mass
Lower limb lean mass SMI
Grip strength Knee extension Chair stand
Gait speed
One leg standing with eyes open
TUG
Stout (2013) [49], USA I: 24, 73 ± 4.9, mixed (54.2%)
C: 24, 73 ± 4.9, mixed (54.2%)
Resistance exercise, 3 times a week for 21 weeks 1.5 g calcium and 4 g carbohydrate, twice a day Placebo: 200 mg calcium and 4 g carbohydrate 24 Lean body mass
Lower limb lean mass Upper limb lean mass
Grip strength Chair stand
Sugihara Junior (2018) [50],  Brazil I: 15, 67.4 ± 4.1, female
C: 16, 67.8 ± 4.1, female
Resistance training using a combination of free weights and machines, 45 ~ 50 min sessions, 3 times a week 35 g whey protein, immediately after each resistance training Placebo:
35 g maltodextrin
12 Body mass
BMI
Lower limb lean mass SMI
Upper limb lean mass
Biceps curl Chest press
Knee extension
Tarnopolsky (2007) [51], Canada I: 21,70.7 ± 4.5, mixed (47.6%)
C: 18, 71.1 ± 5.5, mixed (55.6%)
Resistance exercise using machines, twice a week 5 g creatine monohydrate and 6 g conjugated linoleic acid, once a day Placebo: dextrose and safflower oil 24 Body mass BMI
Fat free mass
Biceps curl Chest press
Knee extension
Leg press
Chair stand
Gait speed
Stair climb
Standing balance
Villanueva (2014) [52], USA I: 7, 68.7 ± 6.8, male
C: 7, 68.7 ± 6.6, male
Progressive overload, total body periodized resistance program, 3 times a week First 5 days: 0.1 g/kg body weight of creatine 3 times a day and 35 g whey protein once a day
Following days: 0.07 g/kg body weight of creatine and 35 g whey protein, once a day
Usual diet 12 Lean body mass Bench press
Leg press
Stair climb
400 m walk
  1. aThe resistance exercise of the control group applied in the same manner as in the experimental group
  2. b The duration of intervention in most studies were the same as the follow-up period
  3. c I, intervention group d C, control group e IU, international unit f BMI, body mass index g ASMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, h TUG, timed up and go i EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid j DHA, docosahexaenoic acid k SPPB, short physical performance battery l SMI, skeletal muscle mass index