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Table 1 Characteristics of all 444 subjects according to NAFLD

From: A low follicle-stimulating hormone level is a protective factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in older men aged over 80

  Non-NAFLD NAFLD P
N 336 108  
Age (years) 86 (83–90) 84 (82–88) 0.006
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 3.3 26.0 ± 3.0 < 0.001
WC (cm) 89 ± 9 97 ± 8 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 134 ± 21 136 ± 19 0.202
DBP (mmHg) 69 ± 12 69 ± 12 0.986
Diabetes (%) 36.9 41.5 0.394
Hypertension (%) 79.8 94.4 < 0.001
Current/ex-smoker (%) 27.6 26.5 0.827
High education (%) 80.0 86.5 0.135
Married status (%) 92.7 90.6 0.481
Routine exercisea (%) 41.3 44.2 0.599
MNA-SF score 12.0 (10.0–13.3) 13.0 (12.0–14.0) < 0.001
Malnutrition/Nutritional Risk (%) 36.3 13.2 < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drug users (%) 51.2 64.8 0.013
Antihypertensive drug users (%) 61.3 75.9 0.006
TT (nmol/L) 12.9 (8.5–18.4) 9.5 (6.5–11.7) < 0.001
E2 (pmol/L) 140 (106–167) 113 (83–136) < 0.001
LH (IU/L) 10.1 (6.8–21) 9.5 (6.5–11.7) 0.568
FSH (IU/L) 17.8 (12.7–35.2) 22.4 (14.2–42.9) 0.025
HbA1c (%) 5.7 (5.5–6.2) 6.2 (5.8–6.8) < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.0 (4.7–5.6) 5.6 (5.2–6.5) < 0.001
FINS (mU/L) 5.9 (4.0–9.4) 11.0 (8.1–14.6) < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 3.84 (3.22–4.64) 4.01 (3.52–4.71) 0.086
TG (mmol/L) 0.90 (0.65–1.25) 1.34 (1.05–2.08) < 0.001
LDL-c (mmol/L) 2.03 (1.64–2.72) 2.33 (1.86–2.79) 0.002
HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.15 (0.94–1.40) 0.96 (0.86–1.19) < 0.001
ALT (U/L) 12 (9–18) 15 (11–20) 0.004
AST (U/L) 18 (15–22) 19 (17–22) 0.082
hsCRP (mg/L) 1.34 (0.49–4.56) 1.47 (0.81–2.72) 0.555
PCT (ng/mL) 0.036 (0.026–0.047) 0.041 (0.029–0.054) 0.007
  1. Data were summarized as the mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed variables or median (interquartile range) for skewed variables continuous variables or as proportion for categorical variables. For normally distributed variables and skewed variables, the differences were evaluated with the Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test. The chi-square (χ2) test was used for categorical variables. aRoutine exercise: moderate to strenuous intensity ≥3 times a week
  2. Abbreviations: ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, E2 estradiol, FINS fasting insulin, FPG fasting plasma glucose, FSH follicle-stimulating hormone, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hsCRP high sensitive C-reactive protein, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LH luteinizing hormone, MNA-SF Short-form of Mini Nutritional Assessment, PCT procalcitonin, SBP systolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, TT total testosterone, WC waist circumference