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Table 3 Characteristics of demographic, lifestyle and serum biomarkers of participants according to sarcopenia and osteoporosis status

From: Serum concentrations of oxytocin, DHEA and follistatin are associated with osteoporosis or sarcopenia in community-dwelling postmenopausal women

Group Characteristics OS (10.9%) OP (38.1%) SP (10.6%) NonSP/NonOP(40.4%) P value
Age (y) 72.8 ± 6.6 65.9 ± 7.3 69.5 ± 10.7 64.5 ± 8.3 0.015
Age of menopause (y) 49.69 ± 3.1 50.51 ± 3.5 49.43 ± 2.3 50.15 ± 3.6 0.76
History of fracture (%) 60.8% 29.8% 32.0% 0 < 0.001
Physical exercise (%)
 No 49.1 41.7 45.6 18.8 < 0.001
 Low 31.4 29.3 33.5 32.8 0.023
 High 19.5 29.0 20.9 48.4 < 0.001
Milk consumption high (%)
 No 41.6 35.7 38.7 30.3 < 0.001
 Low 34.6 39.5 37.9 46.4 < 0.001
 High 23.8 24.8 23.4 23.3 0.417
DHEA (ng/ml) 32.51 ± 12.8 42.64 ± 12.8 34.97 ± 16.2 48.45 ± 10.6 0.042
PTH (pg/ml) 44.5 (29.5–57.2) 40.5 (29.3–55.8) 34.5 (28.3–42.9) 45.4 (32.9–58.5) 0.092
25OHD(ng/ml) 21.61 ± 8.121.2 (15.4–28.5) 23.97 ± 9.524.3 (19.1–27.7) 20.54 ± 7.318.3 (13.9–22.7) 25.87 ± 12.226.4 (19.3–35.3) 0.024
CTX (pg/ml) 380.83 ± 145.6 425.89 ± 183.19 338.43 ± 159.7 372.60 ± 210.3 0.364
PINP (ng/ml) 36.76 ± 15.2 48.15 ± 17.0 38.62 ± 11.4 44.03 ± 16.5 0.085
Follistatin (ng/ml) 18.76 ± 4.8 14.93 ± 4.0 18.97 ± 6.1 13.0 ± 4.9 0.027
Myostatin (ng/ml) 3.07 ± 1.3 3.70 ± 1.3 2.75 ± 1.6 3.99 ± 1.5 0.178
BDNF (ng/ml) 22.67 ± 13.3 30.75 ± 10.6 28.74 ± 7.8 30.80 ± 10.9 0.265
Oxytocin (pg/ml) 398.3 (173.2–662.6) 425.8 (200.2–702.3) 500.4 (289.3–823.4) 612.7 (356.2–1276.5) 0.022
BMD(g/cm2)
 Lumbar Spine 0.703 ± 0.15 0.695 ± 0.06 0.895 ± 0.09 0.886 ± 0.08 < 0.001
 Femoral Neck 0.579 ± 0.09 0.612 ± 0.10 0.648 ± 0.06 0.659 ± 0.10 0.019
 Total Hip 0.722 ± 0.10 0.748 ± 0.11 0.767 ± 0.09 0.816 ± 0.13 0.007
BMI (kg/m2) 19.41 ± 1.9 23.96 ± 3.3 20.31 ± 1.9 25.09 ± 2.6 < 0.001
Fat mass (kg) 15.50 ± 2.3 20.86 ± 4.9 18.59 ± 5.1 21.43 ± 4.0 0.001
Lean mass (kg) 30.43 ± 2.4 36.99 ± 3.8 32.87 ± 3.1 38.27 ± 3.8 < 0.001
ASMI (kg/m2) 4.92 ± 0.2 6.22 ± 0.5 4.96 ± 0.3 6.44 ± 0.5 < 0.001
  1. OS Osteosarcopenia, OP Osteoporosis, SP Sarcopenia, NonSP/NonOP No sarcopenia no osteoporosis, DHEA Dehydroepiandrosterone, PTH Parathyroid hormone, CTX C-telopeptide collagen crosslinks, P1NP N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen, BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BMD Bone mineral density, BMI Body mass index, ASMI Appendicular skeletal mass index