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Table 4 Comparison of baseline, 3-, and 7-month assessment fall risk and functional outcomes

From: Impact of the HOP-UP-PT program on older adults at risk to fall: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome Measure TUG
Seconds to complete test
Four Test Balance Scale
1 = Feet together 10 s
2 = Semi-tandem 10 s
3 = Tandem 10 s
4 = One leg Stance 10 s
Chair-Stand Test
Seconds to perform 5 reps
Gait Speed
Seconds to walk 3 m
*Short Physical Performance Battery 0 = lowest score
12 = highest score
Grip Strength
Measured in Kg
Mean(SD) P-Value Mean(SD) P-Value Mean(SD) P-Value Mean(SD) P-Value Mean(SD) P-Value Mean(SD) P-Value
All Participants E1 11.5 (4.6) n = 71 0.09 2.7 (0.8) n = 72 0.31 15.5 (4.8) n = 68 0.50 4.1 (1.8) n = 71 0.21 8.4 (2.7) n = 71 0.02 21.9 (11.1) n = 72 0.55
C1 13.3 (6.0) n = 70 2.4 (1.0) n = 70 16.4 (6.5) n = 61 4.8 (3.1) n = 70 7.3 (2.9) n = 71 22.3 (9.7) n = 69
E2 10.7 (3.7) n = 65 0.04 3.0 (0.8) n = 65 0.01 13.1 (3.9) n = 62 0.06 3.8 (1.7) n = 65 0.17 9.3 (2.5) n = 65 0.02 22.1 (9.3) n = 60 0.93
C2 13.0 (6.3) n = 57 2.5 (0.9) n = 55 15.5 (6.4) n = 50 4.5 (2.6) n = 57 8.0 (3.0) n = 53 21.6 (8.1) n = 58
E3 10.7 (3.7) n = 54 0.35 2.9 (2.8) n = 50 0.14 12.7 (3.5) n = 49 0.22 3.5 (1.4) n = 54 0.27 9.5 (2.2) n = 48 0.37 21.6 (10.0) n = 54 0.53
C3 11.9 (5.4) n = 50 2.6 (0.9) n = 47 14.7 (6.5) n = 44 3.9 (1.8) n = 50 9.0 (2.6) n = 45 22.2 (8.6) n = 48
Moderate and High Risk STEADI Category Participants E1 12.9 (5.3) n = 42 0.07 2.4 (0.7) n = 43 0.17 16.7 (5.3) n = 39 0.53 4.7 (1.9) n = 42 0.16 7.6 (2.8) n = 42 0.03 19.3 (7.6) n = 43 0.39
C1 15.7 (6.8) n = 38 2.0 (1.0) n = 39 18.2 (7.7) n = 30 5.9 (3.8) n = 38 6.2 (2.9) n = 39 20.6 (7.7) n = 38
E2 12.0 (4.3) n = 29 0.13 2.7 (0.7) n = 29 0.01 14.6 (4.1) n = 26 0.28 4.1 (1.6) n = 29 0.32 8.2 (2.4) n = 29 0.03 18.8 (8.0) n = 7 0.11
C2 15.4 (7.5) n = 31 2.1 (0.8) n = 31 17.6 (8.0) n = 25 5.2 (3.1) n = 31 6.6 (3.0) n = 30 21.7 (8.2) n = 32
E3 13.8 (4.3) n = 15 0.99 2.5 (0.8) n = 14 0.06 14.7 (2.6) n = 12 0.66 3.9 (1.1) n = 15 0.49 7.6 (2.2) n = 14 0.61 19.1 (10.5) n = 16 0.17
C3 14.6 (6.8) n = 22 2.0 (0.8) n = 20 18.0 (8.3) n = 19 4.5 (2.1) n = 22 7.3 (2.7) n = 20 21.2 (9.2) n = 22
  1. E1 = experimental group baseline assessment; E2 = experimental group 3-month assessment; E3 = experimental group 7-month assessment; C1 = control group baseline assessment, C2 = control group 3-month assessment, C3 = control group 7-month assessment; TUG = timed up and go test SD = standard deviation. Items reaching statistical significance on P < 0.05 are italic and bold. *Modified Four Test Balance Scale