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Table 4 Association between physical frailty subgroups and cognitive impairment in newly-admitted older nursing home residentsa

From: Physical frailty and cognitive impairment in older nursing home residents: a latent class analysis

  Moderate physical frailty subgroup
(vs. Mild physical frailty subgroup)
Severe physical frailty subgroup
(vs. Mild physical frailty subgroup)
aOR 95%CI aOR 95%CI
Cognitive impairment (ref: none/mild)
 Moderate 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 2.41 (2.35–2.47)
 Severe 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 5.74 (5.58–5.90)
Age (ref: 65 - < 75 years)
 75 - < 85 years 1.55 (1.52–1.58) 1.51 (1.47–1.54)
 85 and over years 2.53 (2.48–2.59) 2.45 (2.38–2.51)
Female (ref: male) 1.35 (1.32–1.37) 1.10 (1.08–1.13)
Racial/ethnic minority (ref: non-Hispanic white) 0.76 (0.74–0.78) 1.84 (1.80–1.89)
Rural nursing homes (ref: urban) 0.66 (0.65–0.67) 0.34 (0.33–0.35)
Admission source (ref: community)
 Acute hospital 4.39 (4.31–4.48) 23.46 (23.62–25.33)
 Otherb 1.34 (1.31–1.37) 6.82 (6.58–7.06)
Active diagnosis (ref: without the diagnosis)     
 Cancer 1.11 (1.07–1.14) 1.12 (1.08–1.16)
 Heart failure 1.46 (1.43–1.50) 1.35 (1.31–1.38)
 Hypertension 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 0.96 (0.94–0.98)
 Diabetes Mellitus 1.30 (1.28–1.33) 1.28 (1.26–1.31)
 Cerebrovascular Accident/Transient Ischemic Attack/Stroke 1.47 (1.42–1.51) 4.97 (4.81–5.13)
 Multiple Sclerosis 6.60 (5.41–8.05) 12.45 (10.09–15.36)
 Parkinson’s Disease 2.57 (2.46–2.68) 4.87 (4.65–5.10)
 Seizure disorder or Epilepsy 1.12 (1.08–1.16) 2.02 (1.94–2.11)
 Arthritis 1.26 (1.24–1.28) 0.95 (0.93–0.99)
 Osteoporosis 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 0.97 (0.93–1.00)
 Hip fracture 8.20 (7.29–9.22) 13.35 (11.87–15.01)
 Other fracture 3.87 (3.67–4.09) 3.24 (3.06–3.44)
 Asthma/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease/Chronic Lung Disease 0.96 (0.94–0.97) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
 Anxiety disorder 0.91 (0.89–0.93) 0.87 (0.84–0.89)
 Depression 1.04 (1.02–1.07) 1.04 (1.01–1.07)
Any presence of pain (ref: no presence) 1.74 (1.71–1.77) 1.57 (1.54–1.60)
Psychotropic medications received in past 7 days or since admission (ref: did not receive)
 Antipsychotics 0.64 (0.63–0.66) 0.61 (0.60–0.62)
 Antianxiety 1.05 (1.02–1.07) 1.20 (1.17–1.23)
 Antidepressant 1.14 (1.12–1.16) 1.10 (1.07–1.12)
  1. aMultinomial logistic regression model adjusted for all demographic and clinical characteristics listed in this table
  2. bOther admission sources included another nursing home or swing bed, psychiatric hospital, inpatient rehabilitation facility, ID/DD facility, long-term care hospitals, hospice, and other sources