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Table 2 Changes in the characteristics of Dutch elderly stratified by oral status in 2009 (baseline) as a function of time

From: General health, healthcare costs and dental care use of elderly with a natural dentition, implant-retained overdenture or conventional denture: an 8-year cohort of Dutch elderly (aged 75 and over)

  2009 (baseline) 2012 2014 2016
NDa CDb IODc ND CD IOD ND CD IOD ND CD IOD
143,199 18,420 6503 128,100 14,918 5994 113,420 12,241 5438 97,196 9830 4763
Demographic characteristics n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age
 75–85 years 127,017 (89%) 14,824 (81%) 6090 (94%) 99,627 (78%) 10,130 (68%) 5057 (84%) 76,791 (68%) 7084 (58%) 4042 (74%) 51,795 (53%) 4363 (44%) 2828 (59%)
  ≥ 85 years 16,182 (11%) 3596 (19%) 413 (6%) 28,473 (22%) 4788 (32%) 937 (16%) 36,629 (32%) 5157 (42%) 1396 (26%) 45,401 (47%) 5466 (56%) 1935 (41%)
Socioeconomic statusd
 Low 34,846 (24%) 5413 (29%) 1784 (28%) 29,291 (23%) 4063 (27%) 1576 (26%) 36,091 (32%) 4479 (37%) 1977 (26%) 29,447 (30%) 3463 (35%) 1668 (35%)
 Middle 56,101 (39%) 7658 (42%) 2806 (43%) 50,546 (39%) 6247 (42%) 2649 (44%) 45,941 (40%) 5182 (42%) 2378 (44%) 38,196 (39%) 4102 (42%) 2080 (44%)
 High 52,252 (37%) 5349 (29%) 1913 (29%) 48,263 (38%) 4608 (31%) 1769 (30%) 31,388 (28%) 2580 (21%) 1083 (20%) 29,553 (31%) 2265 (23%) 1015 (21%)
Chronic conditions
 Asthma 5152 (4%) 815 (4%) 308 (5%) 4715 (4%) 634 (4%) 293 (5%) 4104 (4%) 485 (4%) 258 (5%) 3290 (3%) 368 (4%) 236 (5%)
 Cancer 95 (< 1%) 18 (< 1%) 9 (< 1%) 543 (< 1%) 62 (< 1%) 32 (1%) 40 (< 1%) 18 (< 1%) 18 (< 1%) 47 (< 1%) 18 (< 1%) 18 (< 1%)
 Cardiac disease 18,914 (13%) 4019 (22%) 882 (14%) 19,557 (15%) 3334 (22%) 1002 (17%) 18,036 (16%) 2790 (23%) 992 (18%) 15,866 (16%) 2257 (23%) 916 (19%)
 COPDe 5357 (4%) 1373 (8%) 423 (7%) 5254 (4%) 1122 (8%) 450 (8%) 4636 (4%) 906 (7%) 390 (7%) 3805 (4%) 679 (7%) 341 (7%)
 Diabetes 12,665 (9%) 2581 (14%) 723 (11%) 11,646 (9%) 2003 (13%) 731 (12%) 9696 (9%) 1546 (13%) 647 (12%) 7703 (8%) 1135 (12%) 558 (12%)
 High cholesterol 21,294 (15%) 2425 (13%) 1137 (18%) 20,930 (16%) 2126 (14%) 1124 (19%) 19,242 (17%) 1798 (15%) 1074 (20%) 16,125 (17%) 1439 (15%) 923 (19%)
 Hypertension 74,063 (52%) 10,296 (56%) 3339 (51%) 68,236 (53%) 8355 (56%) 3295 (55%) 59,236 (52%) 6720 (55$) 2973 (55%) 48,879 (50%) 5138 (52%) 2575 (54%)
 Kidney disease 571 (< 1%) 127 (< 1%) 31 (1%) 572 (< 1%) 108 (< 1%) 34 (< 1%) 506 (< 1%) 79 (1%) 41 (1%) 390 (< 1%) 52 (< 1%) 21 (< 1%)
 Parkinson’s disease 1398 (1%) 230 (1%) 83 (1%) 1353 (1%) 170 (1%) 68 (1%) 1156 (1%) 123 (1%) 51 (1%) 946 (1%) 75 (< 1%) 31 (1 < %)
 Rheumatoid arthritis 948 (< 1%) 143 (1%) 49 (1%) 1016 (1%) 133 (< 1%) 70 (1%) 797 (1%) 82 (1%) 52 (1%) 652 (1%) 59 (< 1%) 44 (< 1%)
Medication use
 0 drugs 35,588 (25%) 3436 (19%) 1570 (24%) 29,103 (23%) 2847 (19%) 1177 (20%) 25,900 (23%) 2484 (20%) 1041 (19%) 22,855 (24%) 2126 (22%) 930 (20%)
 1–4 drugs 95,713 (67%) 12,594 (68%) 4391 (68%) 85,895 (67%) 9997 (67%) 4065 (68%) 75,723 (67%) 7981 (65%) 3669 (67%) 64,519 (66%) 6354 (65%) 3215 (68%)
 5 or more drugs (polypharmacy) 11,898 (8%) 2390 (13%) 542 (8%) 13,102 (10%) 2074 (14%) 752 (12%) 11,797 (10%) 1776 (15%) 728 (13%) 9822 (10%) 1350 (14%) 618 (13%)
Prescibed medication
 Antithrombotics 62,236 (44%) 9498 (52%) 2900 (45%) 61,734 (48%) 8017 (54%) 3037 (51%) 56,648 (50%) 6713 (55%) 2939 (54%) 49,901 (51%) 5409 (55%) 2666 (56%)
 Antihypertensives 85,518 (60%) 12,303 (67%) 3794 (58%) 80,343 (63%) 10,149 (68%) 3861 (64%) 71,375 (63%) 8266 (68%) 3556 (65%) 60,884 (63%) 6568 (67%) 3089 (65%)
 Antidepressants 12,528 (9%) 2054 (11%) 690 (11%) 12,298 (10%) 1663 (11%) 721 (12%) 11,403 (10%) 1404 (11%) 700 (13%) 9944 (10%) 1144 (12%) 617 (13%)
 Bisphosphonates 14,135 (10%) 1866 (10%) 656 (10%) 12,960 (10%) 1533 (10%) 661 (11%) 10,553 (9%) 1177 (10%) 581 (11%) 8057 (8%) 815 (8%) 484 (10%)
 Corticosteroids 14,782 (10%) 2713 (15%) 885 (14%) 13,193 (10%) 2049 (14%) 865 (14%) 11,052 (10%) 1555 (13%) 747 (14%) 8806 (9%) 1132 (12%) 617 (13%)
Healthcare consuption
 Dental care 143,199 (100%) 18,420 (100%) 6503 (100%) 100,207 (78%) 1429 (10%) 1698 (28%) 81,536 (72%) 1391 (11%) 1578 (29%) 64,833 (67%) 1034 (11%) 1252 (26%)
 General practitioner 141,371 (99%) 18,145 (99%) 6442 (99%) 125,705 (98%) 14,394 (97%) 5929 (99%) 109,721 (97%) 11,617 (95%) 5303 (98%) 88,682 (91%) 8703 (89%) 4418 (93%)
 Specialist care 128,444 (90%) 16,622 (90%) 6008 (92%) 116,277 (91%) 13,331 (89%) 5586 (93%) 101,835 (90%) 10,841 (89%) 5017 (92%) 87,359 (90%) 8634 (88%) 4362 (92%)
 Nursing home 15,110 (12%) 2907 (20%) 546 (9%) 13,249 (12%) 2228 (18%) 528 (10%) 12,754 (13%) 1882 (19%) 570 (12%)
 Mental health 5989 (4%) 959 (5%) 246 (4%) 4847 (4%) 583 (4%) 234 (4%) 3661 (3%) 391 (3%) 193 (4%) 2781 (3%) 307 (3%) 146 (3%)
 Physiotherapy 12,426 (9%) 1822 (10%) 526 (8%) 9266 (7%) 1084 (7%) 453 (8%) 7557 (7%) 772 (6%) 385 (7%) 6454 (7%) 580 (6%) 347 (7%)
 Allied healthcare 6774 (5%) 1149 (6%) 352 (5%) 4361 (3%) 611 (4%) 221 (4%) 7596 (7%) 910 (7%) 403 (7%) 9121 (9%) 1008 (10%) 433 (9%)
Mortality 1864 (1%) 1864 (1%) 540 (3%) 6360 (5%) 1269 (9%) 262 (4%) 7091 (6%) 1163 (10%) 287 (5%) 7866 (8%) 1203 (12%) 357 (8%)
  1. a ND Natural dentition b CD. Conventional denture c IOD Implant-retained overdenture d Socioeconomic Status determined by average income, percentage of citizens with low income, percentage of with low education level and the percentage of unemployed citizens. SES scores were determined on municipal level, thereby categorizing the low, middle and high SES27. e COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease