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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Influencing factors of Barthel index scores among the community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong: a random intercept model

  Full cohort (n = 113) Active cohort (n = 55) Inactive cohort (n = 58)
BI scores (mean ± SD) 73.5 ± 29.3 78.0 ± 26.3 68.4 ± 31.7
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 84.3 ± 7.0 81.8 ± 6.7 86.7 ± 6.5
Male (n (%)) 32 (28.3) 15 (27.3) 17 (29.3)
Marital status (n (%))
 Married 17 (15.0) 13 (23.6) 4 (6.9)
 Divorced 12 (10.6) 9 (16.4) 3 (5.2)
 Widowed 69 (61.1) 30 (54.6) 39 (67.2)
 Single 13 (11.5) 2 (3.6) 11 (19.0)
 NA 2 (1.8) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.7)
Religion (n (%))
 Buddhism 8 (7.1) 4 (7.3) 4 (6.9)
 Catholic 2 (1.8) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.7)
 Christian 7 (6.19) 2 (3.6) 5 (8.6)
 Taoism 2 (1.8) 2 (3.6)
 None 55 (48.7) 28 (50.9) 27 (23.9)
 NA 39 (34.5) 18 (32.7) 21 (18.6)
Education (n (%))
 None 21 (18.6) 16 (29.1) 5 (8.6)
 Primary 11 (9.7) 9 (16.4) 2 (3.4)
 Secondary 2 (1.8) 2 (3.6) 0 (0)
 Junior High 33 (29.2) 11 (20.0) 22 (46.6)
 Senior High 24 (21.2) 6 (10.9) 18 (31.0)
 College 1 (0.9) 1 (1.8)
 Graduated University 1 (0.9) 1 (1.8)
 NA 20 (17.7) 9 (16.4) 11 (19.0)
Living arrangement (n (%))
 Living with spouse 4 (3.5) 3 (5.5) 1 (1.7)
 Living with children 23 (20.4) 13 (23.6) 10 (17.2)
 Living with other relatives 5 (4.4) 2 (3.6) 3 (5.2)
 Living with others 43 (38.1) 23 (41.8) 20 (34.5)
 Living alone 22 (19.5) 8 (14.6) 14 (24.1)
 NA 16 (14.2) 6 (10.9) 10 (17.2)
Hobby (n (%))
 Travel 26 (23.0) 13 (23.6) 13 (22.4)
 Reading 19 (16.8) 11 (20.0) 8 (13.8)
 Partying 62 (54.9) 21 (38.2) 41 (36.28)
 Outside 64 (56.6) 31 (56.4) 33 (29.2)
 Mahjong 13 (11.5) 7 (12.7) 6 (10.3)
 TV 70 (62.0) 33 (60.0) 37 (22.4)
 Teamwork 34 (30.1) 14 (25.5) 20 (34.5)
 Gambling 8 (7.1) 3 (5.5) 5 (8.6)
 Sports 21 (18.6) 10 (18.2) 11 (19.0)
 Smoking 10 (8.9) 2 (3.64) 8 (7.08)
 Weaving 3 (2.7) 2 (3.64) 1 (1.7)
Disease (n (%))
 Hypertension 83 (73.5) 42 (76.4) 41 (70.7)
 Cataract 61 (54.0) 28 (50.9) 33 (56.9)
 Dementia 43 (38.1) 13 (23.6) 30 (51.7)
 Diabetes Mellitus 39 (34.5) 19 (34.6) 20 (34.5)
 Anaemia 36 (31.9) 8 (14.6) 28 (48.3)
 Pneumonia 33 (29.2) 13 (23.6) 20 (34.5)
 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) 21 (18.6) 8 (14.6) 13 (22.4)
 Stroke 16 (14.2) 11 (20.0) 5 (8.6)
 Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) 14 (12.4) 6 (10.9) 8 (13.8)
 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) 14 (12.4) 6 (10.9) 8 (13.8)
 Depression 13 (11.5) 6 (10.9) 7 (12.1)
 Heart Failure 13 (11.5) 1 (1.8) 12 (20.7)
 Gastritis 12 (10.6) 4 (7.3) 8 (13.8)
 Parkinson 9 (8.0) 3 (5.5) 6 (10.3)
 Alzheimer 8 (7.1) 2 (3.6) 6 (10.3)
 Traumatic 6 (5.3) 3 (5.5) 3 (5.2)
 Sclerosis 2 (1.8) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.7)