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Table 4 Between sex differences for comparisons of QOL domains and physical fitness parameters according to participants’ age

From: Association of physical fitness with quality of life in community-dwelling older adults aged 80 and over in Poland: a cross-sectional study

Feature Effect
b Age [years]
Param. t p* Param. t p* β SE β
Women (N = 67) Height [cm] 134.1 6.03 < 0.001 0.287 1.07 0.288 0.137 0.128
Body mass [kg] 72.2 1.86 0.068 −0.038 − 0.08 0.935 − 0.011 0.129
BMI [kg/m2] 35.64 2.38 0.020 −0.096 −0.53 0.595 −0.069 0.129
Chair stand [n] 34.70 2.70 0.009 −0.330 −2.13 0.038 −0.265 0.124
Arm curl [n] 22.00 1.39 0.168 −0.147 − 0.78 0.441 − 0.100 0.128
Two-minute step test [n] 191.17 2.80 0.007 −1.979 −2.40 0.019 −0.296 0.123
Sit and reach test [cm] 68.54 1.62 0.110 −0.886 −1.74 0.087 −0.219 0.126
Back scratch test [cm] 135.40 2.02 0.048 −1.911 −2.37 0.021 −0.292 0.123
Up and go [s] −22.37 −0.47 0.642 0.501 0.87 0.389 0.111 0.128
Overall QOL [score] 7.32 1.95 0.056 −0.042 −0.94 0.351 −0.121 0.128
General health [score] 8.62 2.19 0.032 −0.063 −1.33 0.188 −0.169 0.127
Physical domain 71.12 3.37 0.001 −0.563 −2.21 0.031 −0.275 0.124
Psychological domain 65.34 3.90 < 0.001 −0.512 −2.53 0.014 −0.311 0.123
Social domain 20.92 2.88 0.006 −0.111 −1.27 0.208 −0.162 0.127
Environmental domain 44.02 2.39 0.020 −0.154 − 0.70 0.490 − 0.089 0.129
Men (N = 33) Height [cm] 207.9 10.03 < 0.001 −0.456 −1.83 0.078 −0.327 0.179
Body mass [kg] 128.1 3.52 0.002 −0.602 −1.37 0.180 −0.251 0.183
BMI [kg/m2] 31.44 2.53 0.017 −0.053 −0.36 0.724 −0.067 0.189
Chair stand [n] 24.24 1.31 0.201 −0.175 −0.79 0.438 −0.147 0.187
Arm curl [n] 21.28 1.11 0.278 −0.096 −0.41 0.683 −0.078 0.188
Two-minute step test [n] 20.51 0.23 0.818 0.242 0.23 0.821 0.043 0.189
Sit and reach test [cm] 11.49 0.44 0.665 −0.175 −0.55 0.584 −0.104 0.188
Back scratch test [cm] −32.74 −0.36 0.724 0.068 0.06 0.952 0.012 0.189
Up and go [s] 39.19 2.28 0.030 −0.329 −1.59 0.122 −0.289 0.181
Overall QOL [score] 0.41 0.11 0.912 0.044 1.00 0.327 0.185 0.186
General health [score] 4.87 1.55 0.133 −0.013 −0.33 0.743 −0.062 0.189
Physical domain 20.76 1.04 0.309 0.082 0.34 0.735 0.064 0.189
Psychological domain 38.76 2.34 0.027 −0.169 −0.85 0.405 −0.158 0.187
Social domain 22.09 2.62 0.014 −0.124 −1.22 0.232 −0.225 0.184
Environmental domain 62.43 3.42 0.002 −0.345 −1.57 0.127 −0.285 0.181
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, QOL quality of life, b regression coefficient, SE standard error, t t-quantile, p statistical significance, β standardized regression coefficient
  2. Notes: *values in bold indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  3. Required Sample Size: N1 = N2 = 26