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Table 2 Associations between objective measures of physical function and functional disability

From: Potential utility of physical function measures to improve the risk prediction of functional disability in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: a prospective study

No. of events/subjects Incidence rate per 1000 person-years Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
HRs (95 % CIs) p value HRs (95 % CIs) p value HR (95 % CI) p value
Maximum gait speed, m/sec
  Q1 (lowest) 175/395 79.7 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Q2 97/391 37.8 0.63 (0.49–0.81) 0.0003 0.66 (0.51–0.86) 0.002 0.67 (0.52–0.87) 0.003
  Q3 75/404 26.5 0.56 (0.42–0.75) < 0.0001 0.64 (0.48–0.85) 0.003 0.70 (0.52–0.94) 0.02
  Q4 (highest) 37/401 12.5 0.33 (0.22–0.48) < 0.0001 0.40 (0.27–0.59) < 0.0001 0.49 (0.33–0.73) 0.0004
p for trend     < 0.0001   < 0.0001   0.0008
  Per 1 SD increment    0.69 (0.61–0.77) < 0.0001 0.73 (0.65–0.83) < 0.0001 0.81 (0.71–0.92) 0.001
One-leg standing time, sec
  Q1 (lowest) 161/397 70.5 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Q2 131/398 52.3 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.67 1.06 (0.84–1.36) 0.62 1.16 (0.91–1.49) 0.22
  Q3 55/318 24.6 0.60 (0.43–0.83) 0.002 0.67 (0.49–0.93) 0.02 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.14
  Q4 (highest) 37/478 10.5 0.36 (0.24–0.53) < 0.0001 0.41 (0.28–0.61) < 0.0001 0.51 (0.34–0.77) 0.001
  p for trend     < 0.0001   < 0.0001   0.001
  Per 1 SD increment    0.64 (0.55–0.73) < 0.0001 0.68 (0.59–0.79) < 0.0001 0.74 (0.63–0.86) < 0.0001
Handgrip strength, kg
  Q1 (lowest) 149/377 69.0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Q2 116/359 50.5 0.94 (0.74–1.21) 0.63 1.02 (0.79–1.30) 0.89 1.13 (0.88–1.46) 0.33
  Q3 71/393 26.3 0.63 (0.47–0.85) 0.0024 0.73 (0.54–0.98) 0.04 0.85 (0.62–1.15) 0.29
  Q4 (highest) 48/462 14.2 0.45 (0.31–0.64) < 0.0001 0.53 (0.37–0.76) 0.0005 0.69 (0.48–0.997) 0.048
  p for trend     < 0.0001   0.0003   0.047
  Per 1 SD increment    0.64 (0.53–0.76) < 0.0001 0.72 (0.59–0.86) 0.0005 0.83 (0.68–1.01) 0.07
  1. Note: Model 1 is adjusted for sex and age
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for sex, age, living alone, body mass index, multimorbidity, fall experience in the past year, cognitive impairment, smoking, drinking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  3. Model 3 is adjusted for variables in model 2 plus the other physical function measures
  4. The sex-specific quartile cut points were: gait speed, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.1 m/sec for men, and 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 m/sec for women; one-leg standing time, 17.3, 48.8, and 120 s for men, and 12.5, 38.1, and 120 s for women; handgrip strength, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 kg for men, and 20.5, 23.0, and 26.0 kg for women
  5. HRs hazard ratios; CIs confidence intervals