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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 1,591)

From: Potential utility of physical function measures to improve the risk prediction of functional disability in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: a prospective study

Characteristic Overall Men (n = 634) Women (n = 957) p value*
Age, years 73.3 ± 6 73.2 ± 5.9 73.4 ± 6 0.67
Living alone, % 13.0 6.3 17.4 < 0.0001
BMI, kg/m2 23.2 ± 3.1 23.3 ± 2.8 23.1 ± 3.4 0.16
Multimorbidity, % 47.0 48.4 46.1 0.36
Fall experience in the past year, % 19.2 16.6 20.9 0.03
Cognitive impairment, % 5.4 6.2 4.9 0.28
Current smoker, % 7.5 15.3 2.3 < 0.0001
Current drinker, % 39.4 62.2 24.2 < 0.0001
MVPA, min/day 45 ± 34.2 41 ± 31.6 47.7 ± 35.6 < 0.0001
Maximum gait speed, m/sec 1.7 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 < 0.0001
One-leg standing time, sec 42.2 (13.8–120) 48.8 (17.3–120) 38.1 (12.5–120) 0.003
Handgrip strength, kg 28.4 ± 8.2 36.1 ± 6.3 23.3 ± 4.5 < 0.0001
  1. Note: Continuous variables are represented as mean ± standard deviation or median (IQR)
  2. *Statistical significance based on chi-square tests or t-tests, as appropriate
  3. BMI body mass index; MVPA moderate-vigorous physical activity