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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants in Four Population-Based Studies of the Very-oldab

From: The effects of single and a combination of determinants of anaemia in the very old: results from the TULIPS consortium

  Leiden 85-plus (N = 555) LiLACS NZ
Māori
(N = 207)
LiLACS NZ
Non-Māori (N = 357)
Newcastle 85+
(N = 752)
TOOTH
(N = 345)
Age, median (IQR) 85 82 (80 to 84) 85 (84 to 85) 85.5 (85.2 to 85.8) 90 (89 to 92)
Sex, women n (%) 368 (66.3) 116 (56.0) 181 (50.7) 456 (60.6) 192 (55.7)
Institutionalisationc 101 (18.2) 2 (1.0) 9 (2.5) 62 (8.3) NA
Anaemiad 158 (28.5) 45 (21.7) 75 (21.0) 224 (29.8) 167 (48.4)
Smoking
 Never 278 (50.9) 91 (44.4) 188 (52.7) 264 (35.2) 199 (59.2)
 Past/Present 268 (49.1) 114 (55.6) 169 (47.4) 485 (64.8) 133 (39.6)
Multi-morbidity (≥2 diseases)e 84 (15.1) 54 (26.1) 121 (33.9) 88 (11.7) 26 (7.5)
Single Determinantsf
 Iron Deficiency 41 (7.4) 5 (3.0) 20 (6.7) 77 (10.3) 56 (16.3)
 Vitamin B12 Deficiency 85 (15.4) 23 (13.3) 48 (16.8) 131 (17.4) 14 (4.8)
 Folate Deficiency 42 (7.6) 86 (45.5) 131 (40.2) 26 (3.5) 3 (1.0)
 Low eGFR 111 (20.0) 37 (18.1) 49 (13.8) 234 (31.1) 21 (6.1)
 High CRP 191 (34.4) 51 (24.8) 86 (24.2) 220 (29.3) 40 (11.7)
Sum of Combination of Abnormal Determinants
 0 226 (40.7) 71 (34.3) 121 (33.9) 262 (34.8) 229 (66.4)
 1 208 (37.5) 85 (41.1) 150 (42.0) 326 (43.4) 100 (29.0)
 2 103 (18.6) 36 (17.4) 76 (21.3) 132 (17.6) 14 (4.1)
 3 16 (2.9) 15 (7.2) 9 (2.5) 30 (4.0) 2 (0.6)
 4 2 (0.4) 0 0 2 (0.3) 0
 5 0 0 1 (0.3) 0 0
Combination of Determinants (≥2)g 121 (21.8) 51 (24.6) 86 (24.1) 164 (21.8) 16 (4.6)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR Interquartile range (25th–75th percentiles), eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, NA data not applicable (exclusion criteria in study design)
  2. a Only age was presented as median (interquartile range), other variables were presented as number (percentage)
  3. b LiLACS NZ contained two cohorts: Māori and non-Māori population; TOOTH: since not all determinants were collected at baseline, 3-year follow-up was defined as baseline, and 6-year follow-up as follow-up data
  4. c Living in a nursing home
  5. d Anaemia was defined as hemoglobin < 12 g/dL for women, < 13 g/dL for men according to the WHO criteria
  6. e Multi-morbidity was composed of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer and diabetes. It was stratified into 0 to 1 or 2 and above as a binary variable
  7. f Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 20 μg/L for men, < 15 μg/L for women; vitamin B12 deficiency was < 150 pmol/L; folate deficiency was serum folate level < 7 nmol/L (Leiden 85-plus Study and TOOTH) or red blood cell folate < 317 nmol/L (LiLACS NZ), < 340 nmol/L (Newcastle 85+ study); low eGFR was < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, eGFR was calculated using MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study equation from the National Kidney Foundation. High CRP was > 5 mg/L.
  8. g All four studies included five determinants: iron, vitamin B12, folate deficiency, low eGFR, and high CRP