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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants

From: Effects of lower limb resistance exercise on muscle strength, physical fitness, and metabolism in pre-frail elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial

Indicator Exercise group (n = 30) Control group (n = 30) p
Sex, n (%)    0.605
 Male 17 (56.7) 15 (50.0)  
 Female 13 (43.3) 15 (50.0)  
Age (years) 65.3 ± 13.4 67.6 ± 11.9 0.482
Educational level, n (%)    0.447
 Illiteracy 2 (6.7) 3 (10.0)  
 Primary school 11 (36.7) 13 (43.3)  
 Middle school 12 (40.0) 10 (33.3)  
 Junior college or higher 5 (16.6) 4 (13.4)  
Barthel activities of daily living (points) 80.3 ± 10.6 85.1 ± 11.6 0.094
n (%)    
 100 points: independent 2 (6.7) 3 (10.0) 1.000
 75–95 points: slightly dependent 28 (93.3) 27 (90.0)  
 50–70 points: moderately dependent 0 0  
 25–45 points: highly dependent 0 0  
 0–20 points: completely dependent 0 0  
Comorbidities, n (%)    0.923
 Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease 9 (30.0) 8 (26.6)  
 Respiratory system disease 6 (20.0) 5 (16.7)  
 Diabetes 5 (16.7) 4 (13.3)  
 Digestive system disease 4 (13.3) 3 (10.0)  
 Nervous system disease 3 (10.0) 5 (16.7)  
 Others 3 (10.0) 5 (16.7)  
No. of the drugs(pills/capsules) 3.5 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.7 0.061
Hospital stay (weeks) 6.9 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.7 0.254
Duration of intervention after discharge (weeks) 4.1 ± 0.9 4.6 ± 0.8 0.033
Ratio of hospital stay/outside hospital stay 2.2 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.8 0.554