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Table 1 Fall Prevention Study Details

From: Applying the RE-AIM implementation framework to evaluate fall prevention interventions in community dwelling adults with cognitive impairment: a review and secondary analysis

Study, Year (reference) N1 Age, mean y (SD) Gender2
(F/M, %)
Cognitive Impairment Tool & Baseline Score Study Design Intervention Duration3 Intervention Category & Setting Control Harms
Varriano, 2020 [31] 7 O: 79.1 (6.7) 57/43 MoCA
O: 21.2 (2.9)
RCT* 12 weeks Exercise; vestibular exercises
N/R
Usual care Falls, but unclear if due to intervention
Goldberg, 2019 [32] 60 O: 76 (range 65–91) 43/57 MMSE
O: 25.6 (3.1);
I: 24.8 (3.6); 26.2 (3.2);
C: 25.9 (2.4)
RCT* 12 months Exercise; Balance, strength, dual-task training, gait re-education
Home-based
Single falls prevention assessment 19 recorded adverse events (5 non-serious but intervention related)
Padala, 2017 [33] 30 O: 73.0 (6.2);
I: 72.1 (5.3);
C: 73.9 (7.1)
37/63 MMSE
O: 22.9 (2.2);
I: 23.3 (2.2);
C: 22.7 (2.3)
RCT 8 weeks Exercise; Wii-fit (yoga, strength, aerobics, balance)
Home-based
Self-paced walking program None study related
Zieschang, 2017 [34] 122 I: 82.1 (6.6);
C: 82.2 (6.7)
74/262 MMSE
I: 21.6 (2.9);
C: 21.9 (3.3)
RCT 3 months Exercise; progressive resistance and functional training (activities of daily living, balance, walking, gait)
N/R
Seated motor training exercises N/R
Sungkarat, 2017 [35] 66 I: 68.3 (6.7);
C: 67.5 (7.3)
50/50 MoCA, MMSE
I: MoCA: 21.2 (3.4), MMSE: 26.5 (1.7);
C: MoCA: 20.4 (3.8), MMSE: 25.8 (2.3)
RCT 15 weeks Exercise; Tai Chi
Community-centre and home-based
Educational material covering information related to cognitive impairment and fall prevention No adverse events found
Schwenk, 2016 [36] 22 O: 78.2 (8.7);
I: 77.8 (6.9);
C: 79.0 (10.4)
55/45 MoCA
O: 23.3 (2.6);
I: 23.3 (3.1);
C: 22.4 (3.0)
RCT* 4 weeks Exercise; Balance (ankle point-to-point reaching tasks and virtual obstacle-crossing tasks)
Research centre
Usual care No training-related adverse events occurred
Montero-Odasso, 2019 [41] 60 O: 75.28 (7.18);
I: 73.45 (5.74);
C: 77.24 (8.11)
45/55 MMSE, MoCA
O: sMMSE: 27.47 (1.96), MoCA: 23.60 (2.52);
I: sMMSE: 27.42 (2.19), MoCA: 23.19 (2.55);
C: sMMSE: 27.52 (1.72), MoCA: 22.97 (2.37)
RCT 6 months Medication or vitamin supplement; Donepezil
Home-based
Placebo No major adverse events requiring treatment were reported
Chen, 2018 [39] 30 I: 77.3 (9.4);
C: 77.3 (10.0)
50/50 MMSE, CDR
I: MMSE: 16.4 (7.3), CDR: 0.5 = 6, 1.0 = 6, 2.0 = 3;
C: MMSE: 17.9 (3.7), CDR: 0.5 = 3, 1.0 = 9, 2.0 = 1
RCT 2 months Multifactorial; Musical dual-task training (physical and cognitive tasks)
Community/research centre
Non-musical cognitive tasks and walking exercises No adverse events reported
Kim, 2017 [40] 30 I: 82.0 (4.6);
C: 80.9 (3.4)
20/80 MMSE-Korea
I: 15.5 (2.9);
C: 15.6 (2.4)
CCT 12 weeks Multifactorial; physical activities, cognitive activities, activities of daily living, music activities
Community centre
Usual care N/R
Wesson, 2013 [1] 22 I: 78.7 (4.2);
C: 80.9 (5.0)
41/59 ACE-R, MMSE
I: ACE-R: 67.8 (12.6), MMSE: 24.5 (3.1);
C: ACE-R: 62.5 (14.2), MMSE: 22.5 (4.3)
RCT* 12 weeks Multifactorial; strength and balance exercises, home hazard reduction
Home-based
Usual care, health promotion brochures on fall prevention and home safety No serious adverse events related to the intervention were reported. Minor complaints relating to stiffness, dizziness and mild joint pain (n = 4; 36%) were reported.
Suttanon, 2013 [37] 40 O: 81.90 (5.72);
I: 83.42 (5.10);
C: 80.52 (6.01)
63/37 MMSE
I: 20.89 (4.74);
C: 21.67 (4.43)
RCT* 6 months Exercise; balance and strength exercises, walking program
Home-based
Education and information sessions on the topic of dementia and ageing There were no falls or other serious adverse events associated with the intervention
Hernandez, 2010 [38] 20 O: 78.5 (6.8);
I: 77.7 (7.6);
C: 84.0 (6.1)
N/R MMSE
I: 16.4 (6.7);
C: 14.2 (5.1)
CCT 6 months Exercise; stretching, weight training, circuits, dance, recreational activities, relaxation
N/R
Usual care N/R
  1. O overall population; I intervention; C control; N/R not reported; RCT randomized controlled trial; CCT clinical (non-randomized) controlled trial. MoCA Montreal cognitive assessment; MMSE Mini Mental State Exam; ACE-R Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination – revised; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating scale; * = self-declared feasibility study
  2. 1. Number of participants randomized to intervention; 2. Values for gender are based on reported baseline which may not equal N randomized but rather the number of participants who completed the intervention; 3. Not including follow-up, if applicable