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Table 3 Odds ratio from logistic regression models showing the association of bio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics measure in round-I with acquiring and recovery from disability during round-II among panel data of older adults

From: Determinants of acquired disability and recovery from disability in Indian older adults: longitudinal influence of socio-economic and health-related factors

Characteristics Change in disability status during round-II
Disability acquired Disability recovered
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Gender of individual
  Male 1.00   1.00  
  Female 1.40*** (1.21–1.61) 0.85 (0.56–1.29)
Age-group (in years)
  60–69 1.00   1.00  
  70–79 1.60*** (1.45–1.78) 0.57*** (0.42–0.77)
  80+ 2.27*** (1.85–2.78) 0.41*** (0.23–0.72)
Had Cardiovascular diseases
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.32 (0.91–1.91) 0.59 (0.30–1.19)
Had Hypertension
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 1.10 (0.74–1.62)
Had Diabetes
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.14 (0.86–1.50) 0.74 (0.45–1.21)
Had Respiratory illnesses
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.04 (0.79–1.37) 0.93 (0.53–1.66)
Had Cataract
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.45** (1.07–1.97) 1.15 (0.76–1.76)
Had Any other chronic illnesses
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.36*** (1.09–1.69) 0.57*** (0.38–0.85)
Current marital status
  Currently married 1.00   1.00  
  Currently not married 1.12** (1.01–1.25) 1.06 (0.76–1.47)
Level of education
  No formal schooling 1.00   1.00  
  Less than 5 years of schooling 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 0.76 (0.52–1.10)
  6–10 years of schooling 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.72 (0.45–1.13)
  More than 10 years of schooling 1.01 (0.83–1.22) 0.82 (0.45–1.52)
Working status
  Working 1.00   1.00  
Not working 1.21*** (1.06–1.39) 1.34 (0.80–2.23)
Household headship status
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.09 (0.95–1.25) 0.94 (0.63–1.38)
Family structure
  Joint/Extended 1.00   1.00  
  Nuclear 0.93 (0.80–1.09) 1.17 (0.72–1.88)
  Single generation 1.35*** (1.16–1.57) 1.07 (0.71–1.62)
Household wealth quintile
  Poorest 1.00   1.00  
  Poor 0.93 (0.80–1.09) 1.58* (0.92–2.72)
  Medium 0.83** (0.71–0.97) 2.16*** (1.27–3.69)
  Rich 0.88 (0.75–1.04) 2.03** (1.16–3.53)
  Richest 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 2.38*** (1.31–4.33)
Household below poverty line (BPL)
  No 1.00   1.00  
  Yes 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 1.12 (0.74–1.69)
Caste of household
  Scheduled Tribes 1.00   1.00  
  Scheduled Castes 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 0.50* (0.23–1.06)
  Other Backward Classes 1.19 (0.96–1.47) 0.44** (0.22–0.90)
  Others 1.08 (0.86–1.34) 0.40** (0.19–0.83)
Religion of household
  Hindu 1.00   1.00  
  Muslim 0.97 (0.82–1.13) 1.31 (0.81–2.11)
  Others 1.16* (0.97–1.38) 0.82 (0.51–1.30)
Participates in social group
  Yes 1.00   1.00  
  No 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 1.26 (0.93–1.70)
Place of residence     
  Urban 1.00   1.00  
  Rural 1.05 (0.93–1.19) 0.81 (0.58–1.15)
Country regions
  Northern 1.00   1.00  
  North Eastern 0.18*** (0.11–0.28) 3.29 (0.55–19.9)
  Central 2.72*** (2.31–3.19) 0.51** (0.29–0.91)
  Eastern 0.75*** (0.65–0.87) 2.70*** (1.59–4.56)
  Western 0.70*** (0.60–0.81) 1.83*** (1.18–2.82)
  Southern 1.40*** (1.23–1.59) 0.79 (0.53–1.17)
Number of older adults 9,533 994
  1. Note – (a) Categories with odds ratio 1.00 are the reference category (b) * denotes p-value < 0.1, ** denotes p-value < 0.05, *** denotes p-value < 0.01 (c) OR: Odds ratio (d) 95 % Confidence interval (CI) is given in brackets