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Table 2 Bivariate analysis showing the association of bio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics in round-I with the acquiring and recovery from disability in round-II respectively among panel data of older adults (60 + years) in India

From: Determinants of acquired disability and recovery from disability in Indian older adults: longitudinal influence of socio-economic and health-related factors

Characteristics Change in disability status during round-II
Total Disability acquired   Total Disability recovered
N N % ✗2 tests   N N % ✗2 tests
Gender of individual
Male 4,654 1,440 30.9 ✗2 = 59.56;
p-value = 0.001
  422 201 47.6 ✗2 = 0.32;
p-value = 0.568
Female 4,879 1,877 38.5   572 262 45.8
Age-group (in years)
60–69 6,755 2,102 31.1 ✗2 = 152.14;
p-value = 0.001
  588 303 51.5 ✗2 = 14.85;
p-value = 0.001
70–79 2,331 985 42.3   332 134 40.4
80+ 447 230 51.5   74 26 35.1
Had Cardiovascular diseases
No 9,400 3,263 34.7 ✗2 = 2.00;
p-value = 0.157
  952 448 47.1 ✗2 = 2.08;
p-value = 0.149
Yes 133 54 40.6   42 15 35.7
Had Hypertension
No 9,030 3,115 34.5 ✗2 = 6.73;
p-value = 0.009
  825 389 47.2 ✗2 = 0.64;
p-value = 0.424
Yes 503 202 40.2   169 74 43.8
Had Diabetes
No 9,276 3,217 34.7 ✗2 = 1.97;
p-value = 0.160
  896 424 47.3 ✗2 = 2.01;
p-value = 0.156
Yes 257 100 38.9   98 39 39.8
Had Respiratory illnesses
No 9,290 3,227 34.7 ✗2 = 0.55;
p-value = 0.457
  935 438 46.8 ✗2 = 0.45;
p-value = 0.504
Yes 243 90 37.0   59 25 42.4
Had Cataract
No 9,346 3,231 34.6 ✗2 = 10.53;
p-value = 0.001
  867 408 47.1 ✗2 = 0.63;
p-value = 0.429
Yes 187 86 46.0   127 55 43.3
Had Any other chronic illnesses
No 9,160 3,159 34.5 ✗2 = 9.79;
p-value = 0.002
  859 412 48.0 ✗2 = 4.86;
p-value = 0.027
Yes 373 158 42.4   135 51 37.8
Current marital status
Currently married 6,478 2,097 32.4 ✗2 = 52.34;
p-value = 0.001
  608 287 47.2 ✗2 = 0.24;
p-value = 0.620
Currently not married 3,055 1,220 39.9   386 176 45.6
Level of education
No formal schooling 5,724 2,091 36.5 ✗2 = 32.35;
p-value = 0.001
  538 263 48.9 ✗2 = 4.04;
p-value = 0.257
Less than 5 years of schooling 1,646 575 34.9   221 93 42.1
6–10 years of schooling 1,452 417 28.7   170 74 43.5
More than 10 years of schooling 711 234 32.9   65 33 50.8
Working status
Working 1,505 466 31.0 ✗2 = 11.56;
p-value = 0.001
  88 38 43.2 ✗2 = 0.45;
p-value = 0.503
Not working 8,028 2,851 35.5   906 425 46.9
Household headship status
No 4,803 1,792 37.3 ✗2 = 26.99;
p-value = 0.001
  531 242 45.6 ✗2 = 0.46;
p-value = 0.496
Yes 4,730 1,525 32.2   463 221 47.7
Family structure
Joint/Extended 7,369 2,576 35.0 ✗2 = 43.23;
p-value = 0.001
  740 342 46.2 ✗2 = 1.71;
p-value = 0.425
Nuclear 1,169 328 28.1   99 52 52.5
Single generation 995 413 41.5   155 69 44.5
Household wealth quintile
Poorest 1,468 570 38.8 ✗2 = 17.31;
p-value = 0.002
  135 54 40.0 ✗2 = 4.74;
p-value = 0.315
Poor 1,633 591 36.2   144 66 45.8
Medium 1,913 633 33.1   196 102 52.0
Rich 2,023 670 33.1   218 101 46.3
Richest 2,496 853 34.2   301 140 46.5
Household below poverty line (BPL)
No 7,619 2,605 34.2 ✗2 = 6.10;
p-value = 0.013
  826 385 46.6 ✗2 = 0.01;
p-value = 0.966
Yes 1,914 712 37.2   168 78 46.4
Caste of household
Scheduled Tribes 563 177 31.4 ✗2 = 16.89;
p-value = 0.001
  44 26 59.1 ✗2 = 5.92;
p-value = 0.116
Scheduled Castes 1,723 613 35.6   135 71 52.6
Other Backward Classes 3,936 1,447 36.8   398 175 44.0
Others 3,311 1,080 32.6   417 191 45.8
Religion of household
Hindu 7,897 2,787 35.3 ✗2 = 5.39;
p-value = 0.068
  779 367 47.1 ✗2 = 5.42;
p-value = 0.067
Muslim 898 285 31.7   96 51 53.1
Others 738 245 33.2   119 45 37.8
Participates in social groups
Yes 3,415 1,138 33.3 ✗2 = 5.08;
p-value = 0.024
  398 165 41.5 ✗2 = 6.99;
p-value = 0.008
No 6,118 2,179 35.6   596 298 50.0
Place of residence
Urban 2,512 838 33.4 ✗2 = 3.09;
p-value = 0.078
  252 133 52.8 ✗2 = 5.21;
p-value = 0.022
Rural 7,021 2,479 35.3   742 330 44.5
Country regions
Northern 3,245 1,090 33.6 ✗2 = 433.49;
p-value = 0.001
  243 121 49.8 ✗2 = 48.32;
p-value = 0.001
North Eastern 284 22 7.7   6 4 66.7
Central 937 539 57.5   92 28 30.4
Eastern 1,495 409 27.4   104 69 66.3
Western 1,412 365 25.8   172 99 57.6
Southern 2,160 892 41.3   377 142 37.7
Overall 9,533 3,317 34.8    994 463 46.6  
  1. Note – (a) ✗ 2-tests denotes the Chi-square test for association